Bell Ringer Why might someone believe that farming was a more noble career than trade or manufacturing?
TOKUGAWA JAPAN 9-3
The Three Great Unifiers • End of the15th Century: Japan is in Chaos. • Centralized power of the Shogunate failed. • Daimyo: • Head of nobles families, controlled their own lands and warred their neighbors. • The process of unification began in the late 16th century with three powerful political figures. Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugaw Leyasu
Europeans in Japan • Portuguese traders began to participate in regional trade between Japan, China, and Southeast Asia. • Japanese fascinated by tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses and other European goods. • Daimyo interested in buying all types of European weapons. Why would they be interested in buying European Weapons?
Jesuit Missionaries in Japan • The Jesuits converted thousands of Japanese by the end of the 16th Century. • The Jesuit practice of destroying shrines caused a severe reaction. • In 1587, Hideyoshi issued an edict prohibiting Christian activities Japan. • Under Tokugawa leyasu all missionaries were expelled and Japanese Christians persecuted.
Tokugawa Rule • Tokugawa rulers tried to control Japan’s fuedal system. • The state was divided into 250 territories called hans, or domains. • Each ruled by a daimyo.
The Hostage System • How the shogunate controlled the daimyo. • Daimyo had to maintain two residences. 1. Their own lands 2. Lands in Edo, where the shogun lived. • During the great peace, samurai who served the daimyo managed their lands.
Economic and Social Changes • A major economic change occurred under the Tokugawa. • Trade and manufacturing flourished in Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka. • By 1750, Edo was one of the world’s largest cities with a population of almost one million. • A merchant class emerged, along with a banking and paper money system.
Economic Effects on Peasants • Most peasants experienced declining profits and rising costs. • Many became tenant farmers or worked as hired help. • Almost 7,000 peasant revolts and demonstration occurred due to high taxes in the Tokugawa era.
The Class System • The class system became rigid. • Rulers established strict distinctions among the four main classes. • Warrior • Peasants • Artisans • Merchants • Intermarriage was forbidden
Tokugawa Social Hierarchy • Emperor and Court • Warrior Class including the shogun, daimyo, samurai, and ronin (in order of importance) • Farmers • Merchants considered lowest class because the profited form the labor of others. • Eta, Japans outcasts.
The Role of Women • Women became more restricted in samurai class, where Confucian values were regarded highly. • The wife moved in with the husbands family. • If she did not meet the families expectation, the husband divorced her. • Both sexes worked in the field.
Tokugawa Culture • New of cultural values began to appear. • Literature: • Written by and for the townspeople. • Much of this period’s literature was lighthearted entertainment. • Matsuo Basho: the greatest of all Japanese poets
A new world of urban entertainment. • Emphasized action, music, and dramatic gestures. • Plays dealt with the world of urban teahouses and dance halls.
Assignment • Complete Chapter 9 Assessment: • 1-17, 21-22 • Answer’s only!!!!
Instructions for Halloween • Everyone is to bring in a Ghost Story. • Preferably an “Alabama Ghost Story.” • 2 paragraph research on the history of Halloween or “Trick or treating.” • You may bring candy if you do this to explain how candy become significant to Halloween.