Bell Ringer What do you think the word “progressivism” means? Why are we moving onto the Progressive Era after learning about industrialism and immigration?
Needs Fixin’ • Corruption in business and gov’t • Workers’ rights- wages, hours, conditions • Eliminate monopolies and trusts • Food safety • Living conditions for the poor (tenements) • Child labor • Women’s rights • Civil rights- African Americans • Alcoholism
The Progressive Era 1900-1920
Key Concepts of the Progressive Era • Promote social welfare- in English that means improve living and working conditions- more opportunities for immigrants • Expand democracy- meaning give POWER TO THE PEOPLE and get the government to be HANDS ON (end LAISSEZ FAIRE) • Create economic reform- regulate big business- BE HANDS ON, get rid of monopolies and robber barons
Help! • **Progressives wanted to help the poor, unemployed, immigrants, and workers. ** • Social Gospel Movement- combining protestant religion and humanitarian work • Examples: • Salvation Army • Settlement Houses- Jane Addams’ Hull House(Chicago)
Ewww… • Muck is filth • Muckrakers are journalists who uncovered and wrote about corruption and scandal in America in the workplace and the government. • Their purpose was to expose problems, make the public aware of problems in society and get CHANGE
Yum! • **Famous Muckraker Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Livesabout immigrants living in tenements • **Another famous muckraker was Upton Sinclair who wrote The Jungleabout the meatpacking industry
Reforming Local and State Political Systems • Political Machines- organizations that manage, sometimes illegally, the administration of local and state governments (favoritism (nepotism) and unethical dealings) • Dominated cities and municipalities • Corrupt politically and financially
Federal Help • Reforms on the local levels (city and state) were important, but didn’t solve the problems America faced on a large scale. Federal helpwas needed. • 3 presidents associated w/ Prog. Era • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1908) • William Howard Taft (1909-1912) • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1920)
No more monopoly • Big businesses controlled the economy when they formed trusts (eliminate competition and control prices) • Progressives helped to get the Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed in 1890 to make it illegal for companies to create monopolies or big trusts. But in order to really control big business, we needed a strong president.
Teddy Roosevelt • Theodore Roosevelt (Teddy/TR) gained popularity after the Spanish American War, he became the governor of New York and then Vice President under President McKinley. • When McKinley was assassinated, TRbecame the youngest president. • Republican
Vogue it! • TR was known for fighting corrupt political machines by promising everyone a square deal(everyone would be treated equally) • ** TR will try to get the government to be“hands on” and represent thePEOPLE **
Who you gonna call? • Nicknamed the “Trust Buster” • TR cracked down on big business and broke up trusts/mergers by enforcing the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Props • TR coined the phrase “Speak Softly but Carry A Big Stick” which means negotiate and be civil but if you don’t get the result you want, don’t be afraid to use force. Let your actions to the talking. • 1902- United Mine Workers (UMW)
Tree Hugger • TR was a crusader for conservation – wanted to preserve our natural resources and land • Created the US Forest Service and appointed Gifford Pinchot (Ever hear of Pinchot park?) • Preserved 194 MILLION acres of land.
From Roosevelt to Taft • TR became President in 1901 and won the election in 1904. • When the election of 1908 came around, the Republican candidate, backed by Roosevelt, was William Howard Taft. • Taft moved closer to the conservative wing
How Phat • While Taft wouldn’t be as popular among the people and didn’t have the charisma that Teddy did, he would be more progressive than Roosevelt, breaking up twice the number of trusts in half the time.
Money MoneyMoneyMoney… • Two constitutional amendments were passed that helped the Progressive agenda of trying to fix problems in America. To do anything in this nation, you need money.
16 Going on 17 • The government needed more money to fix problems, so they created the 16th amendment which created the income tax which charged individuals based upon how much they make. • Is this fair? • To help get rid of political corruption and letting people appoint their friends to office, the 17th amendment was written. This amendment gave power to the people to elect senators directly. • POWER TO THE PEOPLE
Controversy in the election of 1912 • When the 1912 election came about, the nation was torn as to who to vote for. • While Teddy initially supported Taft, he wanted power back. • Taft won the Republican Party nomination. • TR, being the star he is, wouldn’t accept that setback.
Bull Moose • Roosevelt broke away and formed a Progressive party that he called the Bull Moose Party. • This was the first major election where a third party really competed
Election of 1912 • The democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson for the 1912 election. Since the Republicans were divided between TR and Taft, Wilson was able to win. • 3rd party= good or bad?
Wilson • Wilson would continue on Progressive reforms. He would create the Clayton Anti-Trust Act that took a harder line against illegal mergers. Also, unions would get support from the government • **Shift from government supporting big business to the people
The Fed • Wilson also created the Federal Reserve Act to help strengthen banks and our economy, to get more money out there for the public. • He also bans child labor and establishes an 8 hour work day for rxr workers
Really so great? • Made interracial marriage illegal in DC • Segregated white house offices • Fired many African American politicians • Wilson was from the South and even supported the movie The Birth of a Nation- a movie about white supremacy and the KKK
Bell-Ringer • “Those who produce should have, but we know that those who produce the most- that is, those who work the hardest, and at the most difficult and most menial tasks, have the least.” • Eugene V. Debs, 1905 • What’s your reaction to this quote? Do you think it’s accurate about the early 20th century? Why/ why not?
All the women… • How did the lives of women change during the Progressive era? • They had smaller families, went to work, some got a college education, and became teachers and nurses. New inventions made their lives easier (i.e. soap, clothes, canned goods).
Dry! • Alcoholism was a major problem in the nation. Men would go drink after working 12 hour shifts. Often that would lead to domestic violence. • In 1919, the 18th amendment would be passed that put a ban on alcohol and made it illegal.
Suffrage • Another reform women progressives were able to accomplish was gaining suffrage, or the right to vote for all women in the 19th amendment. • One of the most famous women during this time was Susan B. Anthony who fought for women’s rights.
However… • Even with the 19th Amendment, women continued to be seen as second class citizens- economically (in the workplace) and socially • Wilson and Roosevelt (progressives) weren’t strong advocates for federal involvement with women’s rights **FYI** Jeannette Rankin became the first woman elected to congress (1917)
For everyone • Socialist Party of the United States formed in 1901 by Eugene Debs and V.L. Berger • Formed to protect and help the labor class • Called for programs/laws that went beyond the typical progressive motives • Wanted public ownership of utilities, railroads, oil, steel industries, etc • Debs ran for president 5 times
African Americans • Blacks in America didn’t get much support for social acceptance from the executive branch- looked to their own leaders for help…
Help! • Booker T. Washington- moderate • Believed once blacks were economically independent, social change would follow • Established Tuskegee Institute (vocational school) • W.E.B. Du Bois • Looked to white Americans to eliminate racism and segregation • Attacked Washington’s patient approach- go beyond trade school- go to college • Leader in the Niagara Movement -- NAACP
More… • Marcus Garvey • Believed blacks would never gain acceptance and equality in the US • Created the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • Wanted to create an independent nation in Africa • Ironically, his desire for a segregated black nation was what organizations like the KKK wanted
End of the Progressive Era • Extreme progressive reforms fizzled out- the era ran its course • New reforms were established • WWI- US on the brink of war, dampened the progressive spirit slightly