Bell Ringer • What was the Industrial Revolution? • What made the industrial revolution important? • What impact do you think the industrial revolution has had on history?
Bell Ringer • Where did the Industrial Revolution Start? • Why did it start there? • What do you think the first steam powered machine was?
Bell Ringer • What were the benefits of the industrial revolution? • What are Interchangeable parts?
Bell Ringer • What was a Bessemer Press? • What is a Monopoly? (NOT referring to the board game) • What is a strike? (NOT referring to the bowling term)
Bell Ringer • What is cottage industry? • Why were children used for labor? • What is urbanization?
Industrial Revolution around the World • Though the Industrial Revolution (IR) started in England, it will spread to other Countries • The increase in productivity that England experienced would be replicated in these other countries • Industrialization also improved the standard of living for people and societies
IR in Belgium • Because of its proximity to England the Industrial Revolution will spread there next • The Belgians historically were known for textiles • The Belgians will adopt the techniques and technology of the IR, and the mechanization of the textile industry will evolve first • Belgium would sell their excess coal to bring in revenue, and would eventually turn their iron ore reserves into a thriving steel industry
IR in France • The IR would spread to France, but their success was limited by their resources • Without ample coal reserves of their own they needed to import resources from Britain and Belgium • Their Revolution would focus largely on waterpower, and not steam power
IR in the USA • The IR in the US would take off • The New England area of the US would have a thriving cotton mill system, and the cotton came from the Southern States • American inventors Eli Whitney & Simeon North introduced the idea of Interchangeable Partsto the IR. • Machines and products were made with identical pieces so that broken parts could easily be switched with new ones
Steel • Old Way: Iron (Soft & Brittle) • Steel • Iron is mixed with carbon to make it stronger, harder, and lighter • Before 1850 making steel was expensive • Bessemer Press (1855): determines blowing air through iron while it is molten removes the impurities. Steel can now be made cheaper & faster • Andrew Carnegie invests heavily in steel and it becomes the metal of choice for construction, railroads, and bridges
“Rock Oil” • Old Way: Whale Oil (for Lamps) • Oil (Rock Oil) • A Canadian scientist figured out how to take ground oil (crude oil) and make it usable in lamps (Kerosene) • Edwin Drake (a railroad conductor) saw how companies only collected surface oil for use. • He learned about salt drilling techniques, leased some land, and successfully drilled the first oil well. • Oil would quickly boom into an important new industry as it was used for lamps, lubricating machines, and eventually fuel for cars.
IR in Germany • Germany will industrialize late because of the autonomous nature of a disunited Germany • However, Germany had large supplies of iron ore and coal which made them leaders in metalwork • Supporting the railroad industry became Germany’s strong point • Later on Germany would develop a strong chemical, electrical, and weapons industry
IR in Japan • As Japan came out of isolationism they modernized • Japan would mechanize silk weaving, and build railroads and ships • The rapid industrialization of the country would make it a power in East Asia • Japan would even force China to supply them with raw materials
IR Affects the Economy • The rise of mechanization in production will greatly affect the economies of the world. • Before the IR local craftsmen & artisans would produce the goods an area needed. This was known as the cottage industry or a domestic system. • In the Cottage Industry people tended to produce goods out of their homes (cottages)
IR: The Factory System • The evolution of the cottage system was the development of the factory system • The factory system had many benefits • Merchants could oversee work • New technology could be utilized • Unskilled/semi skilled laborers could be used to complete specific tasks, thereby speeding up production (Division of Labor) • All of these developments would help led to mass production
IR: Revolution in Agriculture • Machines soon made their way onto farms • American Inventor Cyrus McCormick created a horse drawn reaper that cut & collect grain • This increased the amount of food farmers could produce, and lowered the amount of labor needed • This is also the time period where farmers started to use fertilizers, ground cover on fallow fields, and bred livestock for best results
Financing the Revolution • The IR led to capitalism- an economic system where resources are privately owned and market forces determine distribution • Wealthy individuals saw the opportunity for success and would invest their money into specific industries (capitalism) • Industries with more money would be able to grow larger & faster • Banks also encouraged the IR by giving loans
IR- Big Business • Making money is good, competing to make money is bad. • Businesses under the IR would attempt to control an industry as fully as possible, leading to the rise of monopolies • Rockefeller-Standard Oil, Carnegie- Carnegie Steel, Britain- Midland Railway, France- Parisian Gas Company • In Japan a monopoly was known as a zaibatsus
The Working Class • The Industrial Revolution led to the development of “have” and “have not” (Social Darwinism) • Those who succeeded were elevated, those who didn’t were crushed down. • Those crushed were the working class. • The workforce included men, women, and children (Blacks, Whites, & Immigrants)
Child Labor • Children were Employed for two reason: • Even with both parents working it was often impossible to survive on just two incomes • Children earned less than adults, so factories would hire them because they were expected to do the same amount of work as an adult, but they were cheaper • Children experienced some of the most dangerous working conditions (could fit into running machinery, or into smaller coal mines)
Working Conditions • Owners were not overly concerned with Worker Safety • Many worked in sweatshops, small/crowded/ unventilated rooms, where the spread of diseases was common. • People continued to work in such conditions because with the increasing number of immigrants entering the country any protest could result in being replaced.
The Rise of Cities (Urbanization) • People now took to the cities for new opportunities (where the factories were). • The Industrial Revolution had lead to an increased number of factories. • US Factories produced $2 Billion in 1865, and by 1900 produced $13 Billion making it the largest economy in the World • In 1800 only 6% of Americans lived in cities, by 1900 nearly 40% lived in cities • Between 1870 & 1900- 12 Million Immigrants would move to the USA, many of whom made up the US workforce
Living Conditions • Tenements ->Slum • NYC- 90,000 /sq mi (PSL 2,056/sqmi ) • Infrastructure in many of these large cities was inadequate • Sewage problems, no indoor plumbing, lack of clean water, power outages, fire traps, disease, unpaved roads, etc
The Labor Movement • In the late 1800s early 1900s workers • Had low pay • Worked in dangerous and unhealthy conditions • Children could not go to school • Often feared that their wages would be reduced without notice, or their jobs lost • Had ZERO ability to negotiate • Meanwhile owners LOVED the situation • Workers realized they needed to stay together, so they formed Labor Unions
Labor Unions were groups formed to protect the interest of the workers. • Higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions (Bread & Butter Demands) • Unions would use collective bargaining, negotiating for all workers at once • Their most powerful weapon was a Strike, or a total shut down of a factory.
Government Involvement (or lack) • Government does little to stop IR problems, and in most cases they encourages it: • Laissez-Faire: Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations: “allow to do” Supply & Demand forces would regulate business, and it was government’s job to keep their hands off • Social Darwinism: The best run businesses with the most capable people would survive & prosper
What the IR brings • The Industrial Revolution changed the world in irreversible ways • Capitalism was born • Exploitation of society began on a large scale • Increase production, money, and influences will also lead nations to build up their militaries in anticipation of Imperialism