Prototyping Created by: Amanda Quintanar October 9, 2001 OP 380 Dr. Tom Foster Boise State University
What will be covered: • What is Prototyping? • How can Prototyping be used in business? • The nuts and bolts of Prototyping • How Prototyping works • An example of how Prototyping is utilized in business • Summary
An ExerciseSlide 1 of 3 • Close your eyes. • Imagine a vehicle with four doors • Imagine the road you are driving on • Imagine the music playing on the radio
An ExerciseSlide 2 of 3 • Of course everyone one of us imagined a different vehicle • Everyone of us imagined different scenery • Everyone imagined different music playing
An ExerciseSlide 3 of 3 • Prototyping can help everyone visualize the same end result. • There is no ambiguity • Everyone is on the same page
What is Prototyping? Slide 1 of 3 • A prototype, according to Webster’s dictionary, is “an original model after which other similar things are patterned.” • This definition is “an iterative approach to design in which a series of product mock-ups are developed until the customer and designer agree on the final design.”
What is Prototyping?Slide 2 of 3 • There are several types of Prototyping • (i.e. Rapid Prototyping, Basic Prototyping, CAD,Paper Prototype) • Different industries use different techniques
What is Prototyping?Slide 3 of 3 • Utilized by virtually every business • Tool to help businesses stay on top of the competition in terms of new products • Aids companies in developing quality products by allowing the prototype to be but through rigorous testing before production on the product take s place to ensure that it is durable and reliable
How can Prototyping be used in business?Slide 1 of 3 • Virtually every business uses Prototyping • A wide range of business use prototypes from airplane manufacturers to toy producers to computer system developers • Prototypes are one of the most useful and cost-effective quality tools businesses have
How can Prototyping be used in business?Slide 2 of 3 • Prototypes can be a source of creativity • Prototypes allow the user to interact with the product so the developer can receive feedback. • Prototyping is not limited to product development. • Can also be used as process development.
How can Prototyping be used in business?Slide 3 of 3 • Every department can use prototypes to help them excel • For example, marketing departments use prototyping to determine why consumers buy products.
Benefits of prototypingSlide 1 of 1 • Allows all departments to be on the same page • A model allows them to see, touch, and handle the product • Clarifies communication • Effective project management tool • Handy at design reviews G Thomas Clay. “Rapid prototyping accelerates the design process.” Machine Design, Cleveland; Mar 9, 2000; Vol. 72, Iss. 5; pg. 166, 4 pgs
The nuts and bolts of PrototypingSlide 1 of 4 • Planning and goal setting • The design process • Prototype construction • Analyzing the concept 5. Prototype rollout 6. Evolution of the design
The nuts and bolts of PrototypingSlide 2 of 4 There are 6 basic steps to developing a prototype • Planning and goal setting • Sets the tone for the rest of the process • The design process • Important to pick one distinct prototype technique and stick with it. • Prototype construction • Cost and timelines are very important in this stage
The nuts and bolts of PrototypingSlide 3 of 4 4. Analyzing the concept • This is primarily measured by focus groups and technology • Benchmarking 5. Prototype rollout • Always have a backup plan • Changes can be made to design as it becomes apparent which aspects work and which do not
The nuts and bolts of PrototypingSlide 4 of 4 6. Evolution of the design • Communication is essential in this final stage. • Feedback should be given on the prototype and suggestions on how to improve Anonymous. “Prototypes: From concept to rollout.” Chain Store Age, New York; May 1999; Vol. 75, Iss. 5; pg. 199, 1 pgs.
How Prototyping works • Several types of Prototypes • Depending on the industry/product different techniques are used
How Prototyping worksBasic Prototype • “Nonworking mockup of the product that can be reviewed by customers prior to acceptance.” • Sometimes these basic prototypes are used at trade shows • For example, the auto industry refers to them as concept cars. Foster, Dr. Thomas. Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
How Prototyping worksPaper Prototypes • Series of drawings that are created by the developers that are used to obtain the acceptance by decision makers. • For example, sticky notes are used when designing Graphical User Interfaces so users can see the proposal Foster, Dr. Thomas. Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
How Prototyping worksRapid Prototyping • Rapid Prototyping is used to accelerate the design process • Leads to high quality, defect free products and reduces risk • This technique has proven essential to market leaders such as Microsoft, Intel and Cisco
How Prototyping worksCAD System and Multi-user CAD • CAD-computer aided design • Can be used to design anything • Improve ability of designers • Simplify process of prototyping • Reengineered the innovation of global manufacturers
An Example of how Prototyping is utilized in business : Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0Slide 1 of 3 • Behind in the development of an internet browser • Started development November 1, 1995 • Made the project a “company –wide emergency” • Needed architecture that allowed parallel development in order to reach target date
An Example of how Prototyping is utilized in business : Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0Slide 2 of 3 • March 1996-Feedback was received with only 30% of system was complete • April 1996-Beta version was dispersed to general public • Customers could give input on the product • Integration of new features continued through final weeks
An Example of how Prototyping is utilized in business : Microsoft and Internet Explorer 3.0Slide 3 of 3 • Successful because of the techniques used developing the software and “componentizing the product” • Obviously, Microsoft was very successful with this product • Able to maintain quality standards Alan MacCormack. “Product-development practices that work: How Internet companies build software.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Cambridge; Winter 2001; Vol. 42, Iss. 2; pg. 75, 10 pgs
SummarySlide 1 of 1 • Prototyping allows all departments and key personnel to see the same vision • There are many different techniques to use • Six basic steps for whatever the technique may be • Great quality tool to utilize
BibliographySlide 1 of 2 Brian Wansink. “New techniques to generate key marketing insights.” Marketing Research, Chicago; Summer 2000; Vol. 12, Iss. 2; pg. 28, 9 pgs Charmaine Jones. “Perfecting the prototype.” Appliance Manufacturer, Troy; Aug 2001; Vol. 49, Iss. 8; pg. 49, 2 pgs Donna Mitchell. “Virtual prototyping.” Printed Circuit Design, San Francisco; Dec 2000; Vol. 17, Iss. 12; pg. 26, 3 pgs Jim Holt. “Prototype power.” Management Review, New York; Jan 2000; Vol. 89, Iss. 1; pg. 14, 1 pgs Tom Mueller. “ Rapid prototyping = risk reduction.” Molding Systems, Dearborn; Apr 1999; Vol. 57, Iss. 4; pg. 40, 7 pgs Bill Schweber “Prototyping tools transform design dreams into reality.” EDN, Boston; May 13, 1999; Vol. 44, Iss. 10; pg. 75, 6 pgs Alan MacCormack. “Product-development practices that work: How Internet companies build software.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Cambridge; Winter 2001; Vol. 42, Iss. 2; pg. 75, 10 pgs
BibliographySlide 2 of 2 Wilhelm Hasselbring “Programming languages and systems for prototyping concurrent applications.” ACM Computing Surveys, Baltimore; Mar 2000; Vol. 32, Iss. 1; pg. 43, 37 pgs Tom Kelley “Prototyping is the shorthand of innovation.”Design Management Journal, Boston; Summer 2001; Vol. 12, Iss. 3; pg. 35, 8 pgs Michael Schrage. “Howprototypes can change your business.” Across the Board, New York; Jan 2000; Vol. 37, Iss. 1; pg. 43, 5 pgs Anonymous. “Prototypical solutions.”; Chain Store Age, New York; Jul 2001; Vol. 77, Iss. 7; pg. 96, 2 pgs G Thomas Clay. “Rapid prototyping accelerates the design process.” Machine Design, Cleveland; Mar 9, 2000; Vol. 72, Iss. 5; pg. 166, 4 pgs Anonymous. “Prototypes: From concept to rollout.” Chain Store Age, New York; May 1999; Vol. 75, Iss. 5; pg. 199, 1 pgs. Foster, Dr. Thomas.Managing Quality: An integrative Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.