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Earth Science

Earth Science

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Earth Science

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  1. Earth Science Quarter 3 Warm-ups Gateway 2013

  2. Warm-up #1- Copy This • What is Earth science? NOUN • geology or a similar earth-related science: a science that deals with the Earth's physical properties, structure, or development, e.g. geology • Identify the four main Earth systems? • The hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere

  3. Warm-up #2 • List the four main branches of Earth Science? Atmospheric science, oceanography, geology, and astronomy

  4. Warm-up #3Copy This • Compare and contrast the atmosphere to the hydrosphere. How are they similar? How are they different? • Both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere contain water. The water in the hydrosphere is a liquid, while the water in the atmosphere is a gas. Much of the water from the hydrosphere flows over the Earth’s solid surface. Similarly, the atmosphere floats/flows over the surface. Both the hydrosphere and the atmosphere are necessary for life on earth.

  5. Warm-up #4Copy This • Explain how longitude and latitude are used to locate a point on Earth. Latitude is a measurement of the distance of a point north or south of the equator. Longitude is a measurement of the distance of a point east or west of the prime meridian. Together, these two measurements give the exact location of a point on earth

  6. Warm-up #5 • Explain how a map legend is a useful feature of a map? P. 25 in text

  7. Warm-up #6 copy this • Lithosphere of the earth is the outer solid crust on the earth's surface, that surrounds the hot molten core of the earth. The lithosphere consists of about 30 small and large pieces called plates that are continuously but very slowly moving on the very hot rocks below it. These hot rocks constitute the athenosphere of the earth.

  8. Warm-up #7 • Atmosphere of the earth refers to the layer of air that surrounds the solid crust of the earth. The atmosphere extents as far as 1600 kilometers above the surface of earth. Nitrogen makes up about 78% and oxygen about 21% of the gases present in earth's atmosphere. The remaining part consists mainly of Argon and small amount of many other gases, water vapour and dust particles. The lower part of the atmosphere is called troposphere. All clouds exist in the troposphere, and various weather conditions like wind and storms also take place in it. At altitude of about 1600 kilometers the atmosphere gradually fades into empty space.

  9. Warm-up #8 • Hydrosphere of the earth refers to all the bodies of water and ice on the surface of the earth as well as the water vapour in its atmosphere. Hydrosphere makes up about three fourths of the earth's surface.

  10. Warm-up #9 • What is the GIS system? (p. 29 in text)

  11. Warm-up #10 • Biosphere of the earth refers to the regions of earth where life forms such as animals and plants live. These include the surface of the earth and areas close to the surface.

  12. Warm-up #11 • What is matter? • Matter is anything that can occupy space and has mass. • Matter can be things that we can visibly see or not. • For example, water versus air. • The classifications of matter include substances, mixtures, compounds and elements (molecules and atoms).

  13. Warm-up #12 • Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons • Key Concepts • Atoms are made of extremely tiny particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. • Protons and neutrons are in the center of the atom, making up the nucleus. • Electrons surround the nucleus. • Protons have a positive charge. • Electrons have a negative charge. • The charge on the proton and electron are exactly the same size but opposite. • Neutrons have no charge. • Since opposite charges attract, protons and electrons attract each other.

  14. Warm-up #13Atoms • Definition - the smallest particle that has the properties of an element, basic unit of matter - surprising the number of atoms is small - the number of combinations these atoms make are huge ex. color print: 3 colors can make numerous colors • 119 distinct atoms as of 1999, form elements

  15. Warm-up #14Compound • Definition - a substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances ex. H2SO4

  16. Warm-up #15 • Defining a mineral • A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler.

  17. Warm-up #16 • Minerals are naturally occurringThey are not made by humans • Minerals are inorganicThey have never been alive and are not made up from plants or animals • Minerals are solidsThey are not liquids (like water), or gases (like the air around you) • Minerals have a definite chemical compositionEach one is made of a particular mix of chemical elements • Minerals have an ordered atomic arrangementThe chemical elements that make up each mineral are arranged in a particular way - this is why minerals 'grow' as crystals

  18. Warm-up #17 • To be considered a mineral it must have been formed by natural geologic processes. Laboratory created gems (synthetic diamonds, rubies, etc.) don’t count. • A SolidBy definition, minerals are solid within the normal temperature ranges of the earth’s surface. • InorganicGenerally, a mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a crystalline structure.

  19. Warm-up #18 • Mineral: a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid substance with a well-defined crystal structure and a • unique chemical composition • Rock: a naturally occurring substance containing 2 or more minerals.

  20. Warm-up 19 • MINERALS • A mineral is the same all the way through. That is one reason we speak of a sample or a specimen rather than a rock. • There are about 3000 known minerals on earth. • All rocks are made up of 2 or more of these minerals.

  21. Warm-up #20-Copy This • Physical Characteristics of Minerals • ColorStreak • Luster • Density • Hardness • Cleavage • Fracture • Tenacity • Habit

  22. Warm-up #21 • Fracture and Cleavage (calcite, quartz, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene, galena) • When a mineral breaks, it will do so in one of 2 ways. It will either be random (fracture), or it will be along specific planes of weakness that are dictated by the atomic structure and packing of atoms.

  23. Warm-up #22 • The Crust—the layer of rock that forms the Earth’s outer skin. • 1. The crust is made up of the dry rock that makes up continents, and also the rock at the ocean floor. • 2. The crust is extremely thin (5-70km) compared to the other layers. • a. The thickest parts are under large mountains (up to 70 km thick). • b. The thinnest parts are at the ocean floor.

  24. Warm-up #23 • Oceanic Crust vs. Continental Crust • a. Oceanic crust is thin and dense. It is mostly made of basalt. • b. Continental crust is thick and low density. It is mostly made of granite.

  25. Warm-up #24 • The Mantle—the second layer of Earth is made of very hot, solid material. The mantle is nearly 3000km (1864 miles) thick.

  26. Warm-up #25 • Core—the innermost layer of Earth made up mostly of iron and nickel. It is about 3486 km (2166 miles) in thickness.

  27. Warm-up #26 • Lithosphere—outermost rigid layer of Earth that is composed of the crust and upper mantle. It is about 100 km (62 miles) thick. This layer is broken into tectonic plates. • Asthenosphere—soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere moves. This layer is softer, but still solid. • Mesosphere—The lowest layer of the mantle. It is hotter and under more pressure than the previous layers.

  28. Warm-up #27 • Outer Core—The extremely hot, liquid layer made of nickel and iron. It is under enormous pressure. • Inner Core—A dense ball of solid metal. The temp. is hot enough for it to be a liquid, but the pressure is so great the atoms cannot spread to become a liquid.

  29. Warm-up #28 • Forces in Earth’s Crust • Stress—Forces that act on a rock and change its shape or volume. • Rocks can change two ways-folding or faulting when stressed • Types of Stress • Tension—pulls the crust, stretching it apart. Occurs where two plates move apart. • Compression—squeezes rocks until they break or fold. Occurs where two plates collide. • Shearing—Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions. Can cause a rock to break or slip apart.

  30. Warm-up #29 • Faults—When rocks break under stress. Most occur at plate boundaries since plates are moving apart, coming together, and sliding past each other. • Normal Fault—tension pulls rocks apart and hanging wall moves down relative to footwall. • Reverse Fault—compression squeezes rocks and hanging wall moves up relative to footwall. • Strike-Slip Fault—shearing stress pushes rock on either side of fault in opposite directions

  31. Warm-up #30