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The American Civil War

The American Civil War

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The American Civil War

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  1. The American Civil War

  2. Causes of the Civil War • The Causes of the war were many, but included the following: 1. The Compromise of 1850 2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) 3. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) 4. Formation of the Republican Party (1856) 5. “Bleeding Kansas” (1856) 6. __________ v. Sanford (1857) 7. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) 8. Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry (1859)

  3. North v. South President Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis Ulysses Grant, William T. Sherman General(s) Robert E. Lee _________ Washington D.C. Richmond, VA Population 23 states – 22 million 11 states – 9 million • Established Government • Abraham Lincoln • Large Population • Manufacturing • 75% more railroads • Wealth Advantages • Reason for Fighting • Defensive War • Better military leaders • Military tradition • Could trade cotton on world market • Difficult military leadership • Weak motivation • Far from home • Long coastline to blockade Disadvantages • Jefferson Davis • Inflation • States’ Rights • Inferior men, money, machines

  4. The Early Years of the War1861-1862 • The war was initially fought both in the East (mainly Virginia) and in the West (Tennessee). • The Union plan, called the _______________ by critics, proposed to: • Capture Richmond • Blockade the Atlantic Coast • Gain control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in two. • Most victories early in the war went to the _______________ • Lincoln had begun a search for a general that would last him two long, bloody years.

  5. Fort SumterApril 12-14, 1861Charleston, South Carolina • Lincoln ordered reinforcements of the Fort, and the Confederates attacked • First firing of the Civil War—South fires on _______ property!! • No one was killed by the firing, but Lincoln’s call for volunteers convinced the last four Confederate states to __________

  6. Engaged 35,000 Casualties 2,890 Engaged 29,000 Casualties 1,982 First Bull RunManassas, VirginiaJuly 21, 1861 • Both sides predicted victory within 90 days, and this first battle was met with a carnival spirit. • Confused and defeated, the Union retreat turned to chaos as the army passed the civilians who had brought picnics out from Washington to “watch the war”. • Both sides realized that this war would not be short, but long and bloody.

  7. Engaged 62,000 Casualties 13,000 Engaged 44,000 Casualties 11,000 ShilohShiloh, TennesseeApril 6-7, 1862 • ___________ surprise attack- attempt to control the West • ______ recovered and barely won – led by Sherman and Grant

  8. AntietamSharpsburg, MarylandSeptember 17, 1862 *Bloodiest Day in American History* Lee’s 1st invasion of the North Lee hoped to win __________ support (and supplies) for the South and win European support Lincoln needed a Northern victory to issue an ___________________________ The North knew Lee’s plans but Lee was able to rebound quickly The battle was a draw, but Lee retreated South of the Potomac

  9. Engaged 85,000 Casualties 12,410 Engaged 45,000 Casualties 11,172 Antietam Results of Battle: South’s hopes of ___________ were dashed Lincoln issued preliminary _________________________

  10. This photo of the battle of ________ was one of the first battle photos ever taken.

  11. Dunker ChurchIronically, the Dunkers were a pacifist sect. In four hours of fighting around this church, 13,000 men fell.

  12. Burnside BridgeGeneral Burnside forced his men to cross this narrow bridge even though the surrounding water was shallow enough to ford.

  13. Confederate dead at Antietam

  14. Engaged 120,000 Casualties 12,630 Engaged 79,000 Casualties 5,300 FredericksburgFredericksburg, VirginiaDecember 13, 1862 • This Union loss halted the march on ___________ • Union losses were heavy as they marched across an open field; many wounded froze to death overnight

  15. Wounded soldiers at Fredericksburg

  16. Confederate dead at Fredericksburg

  17. These Confederate dead are waiting to be buried

  18. Engaged 130,000 Casualties 17,000 Engaged 60,000 Casualties 13,000 Chancellorsvillenear Fredericksburg, VirginiaMay 1-5, 1863 • Lee again repulsed a march on Richmond • Perhaps Lee’s greatest _______, the Rebels suffered the loss of Stonewall Jackson to friendly fire • The poor morale of the Union troops convinced Lee to again invade the North

  19. GettysburgGettysburg, PennsylvaniaJuly 1-3, 1863 • _________ ______ __ ___ ______________ • Lee had several goals: • Draw the Union army out of Virginia • Fuel anti-war feeling in the North • Feeding and supplying his troops • Last-ditch effort to win foreign aid

  20. Engaged 95,000 Casualties 23,000 Engaged 80,000 Casualties 28,000 • The first two days fought to a draw, Lee made a bold attempt to win– _________ ______, sending thousands marching over a mile across an open field and in which more the 50% of the Rebels died • Lee was never able to recover from this loss of men- Gettysburg is the bloodiest battle of the war, the worst ever fought on American soil.

  21. Gettysburg

  22. Confederate Dead at Devil’s DenThe hand-to-hand fighting was fierce – one in every three men in the 4th Maine was killed

  23. Union dead July 1st and 2nd

  24. Gettysburg Address This crowd at the dedication of the __________ ________ in November, 1863 hears Lincoln utter, in less than three minutes, one of the greatest political speeches in American history.

  25. Engaged 75,000 Casualties 9,362 Engaged 30,000 Casualties 1,000 Captured 29,000 VicksburgVicksburg, MississippiMay 19 – July 4, 1863 • Major Union _______ after a long siege: • Gave _____ control of the Mississippi and cut the Confederacy in half • Brought U.S. _____ into the spotlight

  26. Engaged 119,000 Casualties 18,000 Engaged 62,000 Casualties 10,800 The Wildernesswest of Fredericksburg, VirginiaMay 5-6, 1864 • Grant, marching on Richmond, engaged in a war of _________ that Lee could not afford • The dense wood made for low visibility and fighting at close range • The firing ignited a forest fire from which many wounded were unable to escape

  27. The Wilderness

  28. Sherman’s March to the SeaAtlanta to Savannah, GeorgiaJuly to December, 1864 • Sherman wanted to break the South’s ___ __ _______ • Sherman cut his army from supply lines and lived off ___ _____ • The army cut a sixty-mile wide path of destruction, virtually destroying the state All of these incidents stemmed from the same root question: Who is more important, the states or the Federal government?

  29. Appomattox Court HouseApril 9, 1865Appomattox Court House, Virginia • Lee surrendered his starving troops to Grant • Grant gave Lee and his men generous terms • The Union soldiers, cheering the end of the war, were stopped by Grant to show respect to the Confederates

  30. The Human Cost of the War DeadWoundedTotal North 364,511 288,881 646,392 South 260,000 194,000 454,000 Total 624,511 475,881 1,100,392

  31. Battle deaths: Battle deaths: 110,070 94,000 Disease, etc.: Disease, etc.: 250,152 164,000 Total Total 360,222 258,000 The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best estimates: The Confederate strength, known less accurately because of missing records, was from 750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses:

  32. North Carolina 20,602 Virginia 6,947 Mississippi 6,807 South Carolina 4,760 Arkansas 3,782 Georgia 3,702 Tennessee 3,425 Louisiana 3,059 Texas 1,260 Florida 1,047 Alabama 724 Confederate losses by states, in dead and wounded only, and with many records missing (especially those of Alabama): (Statisticians recognize these as fragmentary, from a report of 1866; they serve as a rough guide to relative losses by states).

  33. Deaths in Prison 24,866 Drowning 4,944 Accidental deaths 4,144 Murdered 520 Suicides 391 Sunstroke 313 Military executions 267 Killed after capture 104 Executed by enemy 64 Unclassified 14,155 In addition to its dead and wounded from battle and disease, the Union listed:

  34. The Economic Cost of the War • In dollars and cents, the U.S. government estimated Jan. 1863 that the war was costing $2.5 million daily. A final official estimate in 1879 totaled $6,190,000,000. The Confederacy spent perhaps $2,099,808,707. By 1906 another $3.3 billion already had been spent by the U.S. government on Northerners' pensions and other veterans' benefits for former Federal soldiers

  35. The Faces of the Civil War Abraham Lincoln Our __th President, Lincoln was a self-made man. Lincoln was an ambitious, prosperous lawyer from Illinois who led the Union while maintaining the belief that the American experiment of democracy was sacred and must be preserved. Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, and died the following day.

  36. Robert E. Lee Lee did not approve of secession or of slavery, but he could not fight against his native Virginia. After the war he encouraged his fellow Southerners to accept their defeat and rejoin the Union. He died in 1870.