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Parallel Computer Architectures

Parallel Computer Architectures

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Parallel Computer Architectures

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  1. Parallel Computer Architectures Chapter 8 Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  2. Parallel Computer Architectures (a) On-chip parallelism. (b) A coprocessor. (c) A multiprocessor. (d) A multicomputer. (e) A grid. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  3. Instruction-Level Parallelism (a) A CPU pipeline. (b) A sequence of VLIW instructions. (c) An instruction stream with bundles marked. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  4. The TriMedia VLIW CPU (1) A typical TriMedia instruction, showing five possible operations. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  5. The TriMedia VLIW CPU (2) The TM3260 functional units, their quantity, latency, and which instruction slots they can use. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  6. The TriMedia VLIW CPU (3) The major groups of TriMedia custom operations. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  7. The TriMedia VLIW CPU (4) (a) An array of 8-bit elements. (b) The transposed array. (c) The original array fetched into four registers. (d) The transposed array in four registers. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  8. On-Chip Multithreading (1) (a) – (c) Three threads. The empty boxes indicated that the thread has stalled waiting for memory. (d) Fine-grained multithreading. (e) Coarse-grained multithreading. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  9. On-Chip Multithreading (2) Multithreading with a dual-issue superscalar CPU. (a) Fine-grained multithreading. (b) Coarse-grained multithreading. (c) Simultaneous multithreading. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  10. Hyperthreading on the Pentium 4 Resource sharing between threads in the Pentium 4 NetBurst microarchitecture. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  11. Homogeneous Multiprocessors on a Chip Single-chip multiprocessors. (a) A dual-pipeline chip. (b) A chip with two cores. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  12. Heterogeneous Multiprocessors on a Chip (1) The logical structure of a simple DVD player contains a heterogeneous multiprocessor containing multiple cores for different functions. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  13. Heterogeneous Multiprocessors on a Chip (2) An example of the IBM CoreConnect architecture. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  14. Introduction to Networking (1) How users are connected to servers on the Internet. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  15. Introduction to Networking (2) A packet as it appears on the Ethernet. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  16. Introduction to Network Processors A typical network processor board and chip. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  17. The Nexperia Media Processor The Nexperia heterogeneous multiprocessor on a chip. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  18. Multiprocessors (a) A multiprocessor with 16 CPUs sharing a common memory. (b) An image partitioned into 16 sections, each being analyzed by a different CPU. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  19. Multicomputers (1) (a) A multicomputer with 16 CPUs, each with its own private memory. (b) The bit-map image of Fig. 8-17 split up among the 16 memories. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  20. Multicomputers (2) Various layers where shared memory can be implemented. (a) The hardware. (b) The operating system. (c) The language runtime system. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  21. Taxonomy of Parallel Computers (1) Flynn’s taxonomy of parallel computers. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  22. Taxonomy of Parallel Computers (2) A taxonomy of parallel computers. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  23. Sequential Consistency (a) Two CPUs writing and two CPUs reading a common memory word. (b) - (d) Three possible ways the two writes and four reads might be interleaved in time. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  24. Weak Consistency Weakly consistent memory uses synchronization operations to divide time into sequential epochs. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  25. UMA Symmetric Multiprocessor Architectures Three bus-based multiprocessors. (a) Without caching. (b) With caching. (c) With caching and private memories. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  26. Snooping Caches The write through cache coherence protocol. The empty boxes indicate that no action is taken. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  27. The MESI Cache Coherence Protocol The MESI cache coherence protocol. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  28. UMA Multiprocessors Using Crossbar Switches (a) An 8 × 8 crossbar switch. (b) An open crosspoint. (c) A closed crosspoint. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  29. UMA Multiprocessors Using Multistage Switching Networks (1) (a) A 2 × 2 switch. (b) A message format. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  30. UMA Multiprocessors Using Multistage Switching Networks (2) An omega switching network. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  31. NUMA Multiprocessors A NUMA machine based on two levels of buses. The Cm* was the first multiprocessor to use this design. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  32. Cache Coherent NUMA Multiprocessors (a) A 256-node directory-based multiprocessor. (b) Division of a 32-bit memory address into fields. (c) The directory at node 36. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  33. The Sun Fire E25K NUMA Multiprocessor (1) The Sun Microsystems E25K multiprocessor. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  34. The Sun Fire E25K NUMA Multiprocessor (2) The SunFire E25K uses a four-level interconnect. Dashed lines are address paths. Solid lines are data paths. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  35. Message-Passing Multicomputers A generic multicomputer. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  36. Topology Various topologies. The heavy dots represent switches. The CPUs and memories are not shown. (a) A star. (b) A complete interconnect. (c) A tree. (d) A ring. (e) A grid. (f) A double torus. (g) A cube. (h) A 4D hypercube. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  37. BlueGene (1) The BlueGene/L custom processor chip. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  38. BlueGene (2) The BlueGene/L. (a) Chip. (b) Card. (c) Board. (d) Cabinet. (e) System. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  39. Red Storm (1) Packaging of the Red Storm components. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  40. Red Storm (2) The Red Storm system as viewed from above. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  41. A Comparison of BlueGene/L and Red Storm A comparison of BlueGene/L and Red Storm. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  42. Google (1) Processing of a Google query. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  43. Google (2) A typical Google cluster. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  44. Scheduling Scheduling a cluster. (a) FIFO. (b) Without head-of-line blocking. (c) Tiling. The shaded areas indicate idle CPUs. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  45. Distributed Shared Memory (1) A virtual address space consisting of 16 pages spread over four nodes of a multicomputer. (a) The initial situation. …. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  46. Distributed Shared Memory (2) A virtual address space consisting of 16 pages spread over four nodes of a multicomputer. … (b) After CPU 0 references page 10. … Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  47. Distributed Shared Memory (3) A virtual address space consisting of 16 pages spread over four nodes of a multicomputer. … (c) After CPU 1 references page 10, here assumed to be a read-only page. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  48. Linda Three Linda tuples. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  49. Orca A simplified ORCA stack object, with internal data and two operations. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0

  50. Software Metrics (1) Real programs achieve less than the perfect speedup indicated by the dotted line. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, Fifth Edition, (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148521-0