The beginnings of Psychology By: Stanley Robinson
The concept of Psych. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and must be studied objectively and through observation for best results. Not necessarily the study of the mind because the mind is something that was created by man.
The very beginnings of psych. A little over two thousand years ago, the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who was also the teacher of Alexander of Macedonia. Wrote about how sleep and dreams have the possibility of influencing behavior. These topics are studied today in psychology
19th century Several different forms of Psychology were being developed during this time • Experimental ( 1875-1886 ( Wilhelm Wundt ) • Structuralism ( 1898 ) • Functionalism ( 1890-1892 ) • Psychoanalytic ( 1895- 1900 ) • Behaviorism ( 1906- 1913 ) • Neo- Freudianism ( 1914 ( Sigmund Freud )
Key People • Wilhelm Wundt- the father of experimental psychology ( August 16th, 1832- August 30,1920 ) • Sigmund Freud- the founder of the psychoanalytic theory ( 1856- 1939 ) • Ivan Petrovich Pavlov-famous Russian psychologist ( September 14th, 1849- February 27th, 1936 ) • Karl Ludwig Bühler- credited with his work in gestalt psychology. Also helped in the founding of the psychology lab in Würzburg.( May 27th, 1879- October 24th, 1963 )
Wundt Wilhelm Wilhelm Wundt was credited by making psychology a completely independent science from philosophy. • Became a psychology professor at the university of Leipzig in 1875 • Wundt explored the realm of mental disorders and abnormal behavior. He also studied how lights and sounds can effect sensations, images and feelings. • In 1874, Wundt published “Grundzuge der physiologische Psychologie” ( Principles of physiological psychology ) ; all of his work was based on what was recorded in his book
Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for coining the importance of conditioning which is also know as Pavlovian conditioning. He conducted an experiment which involved a dog, a slab of meat and a bell. Ivan would first ring the bell, wait until the dog begins to salivate then give the dog the slab of meat. After a while, he would repeat the process but will not give the meat to the dog. But the dog will still salivate even though it didn’t get the meat after Ivan rang the bell.
Sigmund Freud For about fifty years, Freud probed the unconscious mind. he conducted these studies though patient’s dreams. One theory called the Psychodynamic Dream Theory which was based on the wish fulfillment or unconscious desires of the dreamer. Freud was also interested in patients who had problems that seemed more emotional then physical. Thus he broke down human personality into three different forms • The ID-instincts and urges for oneself • The Ego- a system of thinking and planning • The superego- ultimately controls behavior
Sigmund Freud (continued) Freud introduced four psychosexual stages that he believed were crucial for the successful development for children into adulthood • Oral- a fixation with anything involving the mouth • In adults, this could involve kissing, smoking, overeating, drinking or being argumentative • Anal- the ability to “let go” or “ hold on” • Holding on- stingy, orderly, compulsively clean • Letting go- disorganized, cruel, messy • Phallic- fixated with vanity, pride and in the extreme narcissism • Its believed that sexual interests cause the child to be attracted to the parent of the opposite sex. • Genital- begins sometime during puberty. Young adults take part in responsible sexual relationships which later morphs into a mature view of love and full adult sexuality
Karl Ludwig Bühler • In Würzburg during 1907, Buhler finished his thesis on “Tatsachen und Probleme zu einer Psychologie der Denkvorgänge“ ( Facts and problems of psychology of thought processes ). He thesis helped shape the Würzburg school of psychology. • In 1922, Bühler became a psychology professor at the university of Vienna and later became the head of the Psychology department. • In 1959, he was awarded the Wilhelm Wundt Medal by the German Society of Psychology
Places of study University of Vienna • Established in 1365 • Third oldest university in central Europe and its the oldest German speaking university University of Leipzig • Established in 1409 • During World War II, 60% of the universities building were destroyed • The university is ranked 2nd in Germany
Places of study (continue) University of Würzburg • Established in 1402, although it was closed shortly after because of a lack of financial stability. Later reopened in 1582. • After World War II, Bavaria spent millions of marks rebuilding the university which was almost completely destroyed from artillery fire and air raids.
Work Citied • (Book) Psychology: Modules, Dennis Conn and John O. Mitterer • (web) http://www.enotes.com/psychology-theories/wundt-wilhelm-max • (Web) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_B%C3%BChler