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The Beginnings of Industrialization

The Beginnings of Industrialization

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The Beginnings of Industrialization

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  1. The Beginnings of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution starts in England and soon spreads to other countries.

  2. The Agricultural Revolution • Wealthy farmers in Great Britain began to buy up smaller farm land • Farmers begin to experiment with new ways to produce more crops

  3. Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way for Industrial Revolution • Enclosures • Enclose farm land • Allows farmers to experiment with new agricultural methods • Rotating Crops • Switching crops each year to avoid depleting the soil • Breeding – only breed the best animals

  4. Enclosure

  5. Revolution in Great Britain • 1700s = change in technology • energy source changed from human & animal power to machinery • Industrial Revolution occurred when use of power-driven machinery was developed • This started in Great Britain

  6. Why did Industrial Revolution Begin in Great Britain? • Britain had the natural resources needed • Expanding economy allows Great Britain to invest in new ideas • Has all factors of production • Land, labor, capital

  7. Other Factors for Successin Great Britain • exploration and colonialism • power of the sea • political stability • government support • growth of private investment

  8. Factors of Production: Land • Great Britain had great natural resources • coal for fuel • iron for steel & machinery • waterways (rivers & canals) to generate power and transport raw materials and goods

  9. Factors of Production: Labor • Great Britain’s population grew because of greater food supply • enclosure movement took land away from small farmers • resulted in surplus of available workers

  10. Factors of Production: Capital • capital is the money or property a business needs to stay in business • capital can be money, machines, or people • people who specialized in one area had abilities and skills to their advantages

  11. A Revolution in Textiles • a cottage industry is an occupation in which you make a craft and it is done in your home • making cloth had been a cottage industry • cloth was made mostly with wool

  12. A New Way of Making Cloth • cloth was now made from wool and cotton • more sheep could be raised due to the enclosure movement • cotton came to Great Britain from the colonies • new inventions helped the process of cloth making

  13. Cotton Gin • invented by Eli Whitney • removed seeds from raw cotton

  14. Spinning Jenny • invented by James Hargreaves • spun multiple threads at one time • threads were still thick and broke easily

  15. Spinning Frame • invented by Richard Arkwright • similar to the spinning jenny • spun stronger, thinner threads

  16. “Flying Shuttle” • invented by John Kay • pushed thread back and forth on loom automatically • had been done by the weaver pushing the shuttle back and forth • allowed for looms to be wider than arm’s width

  17. Power Loom • invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 • automated the weaving process

  18. Cloth Making Outside the Home • new inventions to speed up the cloth making process were big machines • machines needed a special place to house them • cloth now made in FACTORIES

  19. Where to Build a Factory? • Machines first powered by water • Factories were located near water source to harness that power

  20. Steam Powers the Revolution • steam is created when water is heated to the point of vaporizing • water vapors expand when hot • steam engines were invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen

  21. Newcomen Steam Engine

  22. Development of the Steam Engine • James Watt innovated Newcomen’s steam engine to be more efficient • Watt’s engine was better suited for factories • 1802  Richard Trevithick put a steam engine in first locomotive • 1807  Robert Fulton developed the first steamship

  23. Coal for British Steam Engines • coal mining industry in northern and western England grew • by 1800, Great Britain produced 80% of Europe’s coal • mining was dangerous • explosions • coal dust • collapsing shafts • hard labor

  24. Steel Industry Helps • Bessemer Process developed • Helps mass produce steel • Steel industry spurs on other industries

  25. WASN’T THIS FUN!!!!!!