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Communicable Diseases and Prevention

Communicable Diseases and Prevention

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Communicable Diseases and Prevention

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  1. Communicable Diseases and Prevention Coach Utt Health

  2. Definition and Causes • Communicable Disease- A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment • Caused by an organism called a pathogen (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans) • Infections- are conditions that occur when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells.

  3. Types of Pathogens • Viruses-pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat • Flu • Hepatitis • Polio • Mononucleosis • Chicken Pox • AIDS • Herpes • Bacteria- single celled microorganisms • Gonorrhea • Tuberculosis • Pinkeye • Pneumonia (viral & bacterial) • Meningitis (viral & bacterial)

  4. Virus vs Bacteria Virus Bacteria • Need living cells to reproduce • Antibiotics don’t work against them • Body’s immune system kills the virus • Most are harmless • Can be killed by antibotics and the body’s immune system Left upper extremity shows necrotizing fascitis in an individual who used illicit drugs. Cultures grew Streptococcus milleri and anaerobes (Prevotella species). Patient would grease, or lick, the needle before injection.

  5. How are they transmitted? • Direct Contact- Touching, Biting, Kissing, Sexual Contact, Sneezing, & Coughing • Indirect Contact- Contaminated objects, Vector (mosquito & ticks), Water and Food contamination

  6. Prevention • Wash Your Hands!!!! (with antibacterial soap:) After using bathroom, preparing food, before eating • Handling Food Properly- Clean surface area, separate raw meats, cook food to proper temperature & store food properly!

  7. Common Communicable Diseases Influenza (FLU) Pneumonia • Mainly spread through airborne transmission • High fever, fatigue, headache • Infection of the lungs in which the air sacs fill with pus and fluid • Top 10 causes of death is U.S.

  8. Continued Hepatitis (A, B, & C) • Inflammation of the liver • Caused by chemicals, drug & alcohol use (sharing needles) , pathogens • No Cure! • Only vaccinations for A & B • # 1 reason for Liver transplants in the U.S.

  9. Emerging Infection • A communicable disease whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future • Example: Staph (MRSA) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections.