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CHAPTER 7: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 7 – The Cell – IQ # 1. What century did the use of the microscope begin (p. 169)? What does cell theory state? Summarize in your own words (p. 170).

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  2. Chapter 7 – The Cell – IQ # 1 • What century did the use of the microscope begin (p. 169)? • What does cell theory state? Summarize in your own words (p. 170). • Define Prokaryote and Eukaryote, what are the example organisms that are associated with each type (p. 173)?

  3. Used compound microscope to look at a slice of cork 7-1 Life Is Cellular A. The Discovery of the Cell 1. Early Microscopes • Robert Hooke- • Anton van Leeuwenhoek- 2. The Cell Theory • Mathias Schleiden- • Theodor Schwann- • Rudolf Virchow- Observed tiny living things in pond water Concluded all plants are made of cells Stated all animals are made of cells Concluded new cells come from existing cells

  4. Cell Theory: cells •  All living things are composed of _____ •  Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things •  New cells are produced from ____________ Existing cells

  5. Where does the mold come from?

  6. Exploring the Cell B. Exploring the Cell1. Electron Microscope (TEM & SEM) -Specimen placed in a vacuumhttp://www.mos.org/sln/sem/

  7. Scanning Electron Microscope Old, Used Mascara Brush Mosquito Head

  8. Exploring the Cell Exploring the Cell1. Electron Microscope (TEM & SEM) -Specimen placed in a vacuumhttp://www.mos.org/sln/sem/2. Scanning Probe Microscope -1990 development of fine probe microscope -operates in _______________ -can even show samples in solution ordinary air

  9. The light microscope enables us to see the overall shape and structure of a cell Microscopes Image seen by viewer Eyepiece Ocularlens Objective lens Specimen Condenser lens Light source Figure 4.1A

  10. 0.2 micrometers 1000 micrometers C. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes • cells vary in size from _________________- ___________________ • Viruses are not cells Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus

  11. Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic cell

  12. before Membrane bound organelles

  13. Bacteria Cells

  14. Archaea

  15. before true DNA Cell membrane Ribosomes Membrane bound organelles Plants, animals, fungi, and protists

  16. Fungi

  17. Protists

  18. Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic cell

  19. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Nucleus Organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Cell membrane Contain DNA Ribosomes

  20. Monday Night Homework • Happy Halloween!!

  21. IQ # 2 – 7.1 Review • How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ? How are they the same? • What are the three parts of Cell Theory? • Matching • Plants • Archaea • Animals • Fungi • Bacteria • Protists • Prokaryotic • Eukaryotic

  22. Announcements • Make-Up Day • TOMORROW – Wednesday Nov 2 • Lunch – Quizzes • Josh H – Quiz 6 • Ryan C – Quiz 2 • After School or 6th Period – Exams • Breanna R – Test # 4 • Extra Credit • TOMORROW – Wednesday Nov 2 • Work on Sections 7.1-7.2 in Workbook

  23. Microscope Lab

  24. Microscopes Image seen by viewer Eyepiece Ocular lens Objective lens Specimen Condenser lens Light source

  25. Tuesday Night Homework • Due November 2 • Section Assessment 7.1 • Pg. 173 • Questions 1-5

  26. IQ # 3 • What differences between Plant and Animal cells do you see (p. 175)? • What is the structure of the nucleus? What is held inside the nucleus (P. 176)? • What do Ribosomes do? Where can you find Ribosomes (p. 177)? • What does the Endoplasmic Reticulum do? How many types of E.R. are there? How do they differ in function (p. 177-178)? • What is the structure of the Golgi Apparatus? What are its functions (p. 178)?

  27. Agenda • Review Prokaryotes v. Eukaryotes • Khan Academy Video ~ 15 Minutes • Bacteria – Intro to Bacteria • Begin Cell Organelles Lecture • Nucleus • Ribosomes • E.R. • Golgi Apparatus

  28. CA State Science Standards • The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: E. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. F. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. G. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.

  29. Bacteria – An Introduction • Khan Academy • http://www.khanacademy.org/video/bacteria?playlist=Biology • HANDOUT

  30. Nucleus • “Control Center for the Cell” • Contains  DNA • Nuclear Envelope • 2 membranes • Pores • Chromatin or Chromosomes • Nucleolus • Ribosome Synthesis

  31. NUCLEUS Chromatin Two membranesof nuclearenvelope Nucleolus Pore ROUGHENDOPLASMICRETICULUM Ribosomes

  32. Ribosomes • “Producer of the Proteins” • Small pieces of RNA • Found throughout the cytoplasm • 2 subunits • Free Ribosomes • In Cystol (Cytoplasm) • For use in the Cell • Bound Ribosomes • In Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • For use in membranes, organelles, or export

  33. Endoplasmic Reticulum - E.R. • “Maker of Exports” • Lipids for Cell Membrane created • Proteins and Other Materials Exported • Smooth E.R. • Contain enzymes • Detoxification (Lots of Smooth E.R. in Liver Cells) • Rough E.R. • Rough part is Ribosomes on surface of E.R. • Portion involved in protein synthesis

  34. SMOOTH ER ROUGHER Nuclearenvelope Ribosomes SMOOTH ER ROUGH ER Figure 4.9

  35. Golgi Apparatus • “Exporter” • Stacks of sacks • Golgi modifys, sorts, packagesproteins (and other material) from the E.R. for • Storage • Secretion • In high density in cells that secrete a lot • Salivary Glands • Pancreas

  36. Wenesday Night Homework • Due November • Section Assessment 7.2 • Pg. 181 • Questions 1-5

  37. IQ # 4 • Why does the nucleus have pores? What is the function of Nucleolus? What does DNA look like if it is in the chromatin state (Draw it)? • What does a Ribosome look like (DRAW IT)? What is its main function? What is it made of? • Make a chart  What are the 2 types of E.R.? How do their functions differ? How do they look different (Draw it)? • What does the Golgi Apparatus look like (Draw It!)? What are its three main functions? What organelle do its materials come from and where are they headed? (Draw the chain of events)

  38. Announcements • Tomorrow is Friday  What does that mean? QUIZ!!! • Sections 7.1-7.2 • Organelles • Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes • Difference in plant and animal cells

  39. Agenda • IQ # 4 • Lecture  Cell Oranelles, Part 2 • Lysosomes • Vacuoles • Mitochondria • Chloroplasts • Cytoskeleton • Cell City Analogy Activity • Review of 7.1 and 7.2 Homework

  40. Lysosomes • “The Clean-Up Crew” • Organelles filled with Enzymes • Bud off of Golgi • Digestion of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into components • Breakdown of old, dead organelles • Keep cell healthy • Found in high densities in White Blood Cells • Lysosomes Fail -  • Tay-Sac Disease

  41. LYSOSOME Nucleus

  42. Rough ER Transport vesicle(containing inactivehydrolytic enzymes) Plasmamembrane Golgiapparatus Engulfmentof particle Lysosomeengulfingdamagedorganelle “Food” LYSOSOMES Digestion Foodvacuole

  43. Vacuoles • “The Storage Unit” • Storage of • Water • Salts • Proteins • carbohydrates • Typically very large in plant cells • Create enough pressure so cells can structurally support heavy items • Some animals can actively pump water in and out • Central in the cell

  44. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts • “The power company” • Energy harvesting Organelle • Chloroplasts • Only photosynthetic organisms • Plants • Photosynthetic Bacteria/ Algae • Mitochondria • ALL living cells

  45. Mitochondria • “The Converter” • Convert chemical energy from food into usable energy in the cell • 2 Membranes • Has own DNA and Ribosomes • Acts mostly independently from cell • Location for Cellular Respiration  ATP Production • All your mitochondria are from your Mother!

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