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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II
  2. Axis Aggression
  3. 1. Germany Expands Rebuilding the German Military 1933- Hitler secretly begins rebuilding the German military Eventually he was open about his plans for rebuilding the German military This would violate the Treaty of Versailles 1935- Great Britain agreed to a treaty allowing Germany to build submarines and other warships again Hitler claimed he was building up his army to resist the spread of communism This was a diversion
  4. b. Militarizing the Rhineland 1936- Hitler sent a small force into the Rhineland German territory that bordered France Hitler claimed to be reacting to French-Soviet agreement that he claimed threatened Germany This was another violation of the Treat of Versailles British and French complained about the violation but took no action
  5. c. Annexing Austria Hitler began to plot more aggressive moves. He knew that his opponents were trying to avoid another war Hitler’s next target was Austria Wanted to unite all German-speaking people in Europe 1938- He demanded that Austrian officials accept annexation by Germany Annexation is the formal joining of one country to another
  6. iv. Austrians agreed Knew Hitler would take it by force if he had to Many of the people within Austria supported this move v. March 1938- German troops marched into Austria Austria is no longer an independent country
  7. d. A Growing Crisis After Austria, Hitler was convinced that no would stop him Turned to incorporate Czechoslovakia The Czech prepared to fight hoping that France would support them France was still more concerned with avoiding another war
  8. iii. September 1938 British prime minister Neville Chamberlain and French Edouard Daladier agreed to let Hitler have his way They told the Czech that if they opposed Hitler they would be doing it by themselves iv. Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement He believed it had prevent an unnecessary war Others disagreed with him Winston Churchill spoke out against Chamberlain’s policy
  9. Neville Chamberlain Edouard Daladier
  10. 2. Alliances and Civil War The Axis Forms Aggressive and totalitarian regimes had also emerged in Italy and Japan The similarities between these two countries and Germany led to the formation of the Axis Powers Had a series of agreements between them 1936- Germany and Japan had agreed to the Anti-Comintern Pact United the two in an effort to prevent communism and to oppose the Soviet Union A year later Italy would join 1939- Italy and Germany signed a military agreement in which each side pledged to aid the other in the event of a war
  11. b. The Spanish Civil War Italy and Germany also worked for an alliance with Spain 1939- The Spanish Civil War broke out Two Groups Nationalist (fascists) Supported Germany and Italy Republicans Supported the Soviet Union Nationalists will defeat the Republicans Spain was now under the control of a Fascist dictator named Francisco Franco
  12. A Secret Deal with Stalin 1939- British and French officials were discussing a possible alliance with the Soviets Stalin lost confidence that they could help protect his country against the growing German Army Stalin was secretly negotiating a separate agreement with the Germans
  13. iii. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Revealed in 1939 Each side promised not to attack the other Designed to allow further German aggression in Europe Secret section of the pact also recognized each side’s right to take territory in Eastern Europe Included dividing Poland between the Soviet and German area
  14. iv. New of the pact shocked the British and French v. Became clear that the only way to stop Hitler would be by force
  15. 3. The War Begins Lightning Attacks German forces used new attack called the blitzkrieg on their attack of Poland Blitzkrieg means lightning war Emphasized the speed and close coordination between aircraft and the fast-moving ground forces Airplanes damaged the defenses and caused panic among civilians Tanks and mobile artillery struck deep into the countryside Then came the foot soldiers, who looked for any area of resistance remaining
  16. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ha0qKquG2E
  17. ii. Attack on Poland had a devastating effect Polish air force was quickly destroyed Soldiers were powerless to stop the German iii. Great Britain and France had promised to help Poland if attacked iv. September 3, 1939- Great Britain and France declare war on Germany They became known as the Allies Neither gave Poland any significant help
  18. b. Attack on France Began in the Spring of 1940 First they invaded Denmark and Norway This helped improve Germany’s access to the Atlantic Ocean
  19. iii. May 10- attacks on France begin Assault started in the Netherlands and Belgium Allied forces were no match for Germans At the same time Germans attacked in the Ardennes A dense forest region between France and Belgium It was left virtually undefended Germany then moved toward the French coast
  20. 4. Allied troops were trapped at the coastal city of Dunkirk 300,000 were rescued by the Allies and brought to Great Britain 5. June 22, 1940- France surrenders to Germany Germany occupied France Part of the country place under French leaders who cooperated with Hitler This area is known as Vichy, France
  21. 6. Some French leaders escaped to Britain i.e. Charles de Gaulle Organized a resistance to Germany and the Vichy
  22. c. The Battle for Great Britain Great Britain now stood alone against the Germans Conquering Great Britain would prove to be more difficult for Hitler compared to the rest of Europe Winston Churchill now led England
  23. iv. Battle of Britain Between August and October 1940 Germans sent thousands of aircraft over the English Channel to attack British targets Hitler’s plan was to destroy the British Royal Air Force, so that they could invade Britain The Germans failed
  24. v. British were aided by a new technology: radar Radar uses radio signals to locate and create an image of distant objects This allowed the British to detect incoming aircraft before the Germans arrived Made British air defense more effective
  25. vi. Fall 1940 German plans began to bomb British ports and cities, including London Became known as the London Blitz Hitler’s goal was to terrorize civilians and break their will to fight Bombs kill thousands of civilians Destroyed large areas in London and other cities British never gave in vii. 1941- Hitler is forced to call off his plans to invade Britain
  26. d. The Invasion of the Soviet Union June 1941- Hitler broke his nonaggressive treaty with Stalin At first the German blitzkrieg was highly effective Despite heavy losses the Soviet Union did not collapse
  27. iv. By Autumn was deep within Soviet territory but had not reached their goal of Leningrad and Moscow Germans were also not prepared for the harsh winter As winter set in their progress slowed, then stopped v. Soviets huge population allowed for it to rebuild its army quickly vi. They began to fight back
  28. 4. Japan Attacks 1941 Japan moved its forces into French Indochina Region was rich in oil, rubber and other natural resources that Japan would need to supply its military American leaders banned the sale of oil to Japan It was designed to slow the Japanese war machine Serious threat to Japan’s future plans
  29. b. Pearl Harbor Hideki Tojo Japanese General Developed plans for a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor An American naval base in Hawaii Home to the United States Pacific Fleet
  30. ii. December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor Were undetected by American military Base was lightly defended, even though leaders felt an attack on the base was possible Attack lasted less than 2 hours
  31. 4. Destruction of the attack 2400 Americans were dead 200 aircraft destroyed All 8 battleships were either sunk or damaged 5. Only good news for Americans were that her 3 aircraft carriers were at sea and unharmed
  32. c. The American Response Attack had a profound effect on the American public Up until the attack many felt America should stay out of the war This is known as isolationism The desire to avoid involvement in the affairs of other nations
  33. ii. December 8, 1941 The U.S. Congress declared war on Japan Three days later Germany and Italy declare war on the United States U.S. joined on the side of the Allies
  34. The Allied Response
  35. 1. Early American Involvement The Battle of the Atlantic Control of the Atlantic was a critical factor in WWII Allied nations depended on the supplies that were sent to their ports If Germany cut those off the war would soon be lost
  36. iv. Germany’s navy was powerful but could not match the battleships of Great Britain Relied on the U-boats Inflicted enormous amount of damage on the Allies v. United States had give aid to Great Britain before entering the war They gave military escorts to convoys carrying supplies Led to shooting between American and German vessels
  37. vi. October 1941 A U-boat sank the American escort ship USS Reuben James, killing most of its crew 1st U.S. Navy ship sunk by Germany during the war
  38. b. The American Home Front U.S. entered the war 2 months after the Reuben James was sunk It was an enormous task to mobilize the U.S. forces Millions of Americans volunteered to fight, others were drafted
  39. iv. Women Worked as pilots Clerks and other positions v. Many factories that made consumer goods were converted to produce weapons and supplies vi. Gave new opportunities for women and African Americans
  40. vii. Other ways Americans helped country Did with less items like food and fuel Participated in scrape drives to collect materials like iron and rubber viii. Negative effects of Patriotism Fear that people of German, Italian, and Japanese heritage would help the enemy Imposed certain restrictions Japanese suffered the most
  41. ix. Japanese Internment Camps More than 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced to leave their homes and businesses on the West Coast and move to internment camps Most were American citizens Government was only concerned about their racial background Many camps were located in desert areas Surrounded by guards and barbed wire fences
  42. 5. Families lived in small facilities 6. Education and health care were poor 7. They were released later in the war
  43. c. Winning the Atlantic Germany sent U-boats into American water when America entered the war 1943- Allies had made number of adjustments in the war for the Atlantic Allied factories began producing ships and planes in large numbers Allies broke a key German code system used to transmit information about German plans Helped with the location of U-boats
  44. 2. War in North Africa and Italy Back and Forth fighting AfrikaKorps German and Italian forces in Africa Led by German general Edwin Rommel Nickname was the Desert Fox Pushed the British out of Libya and back into Egypt Did have trouble supplying forces El Alamein Key battle between the British and the AfrikaKorps British were led by General Bernard Montgomery British were able to use information gained from secret German codes to win the battle The Battle of El Alamein weakened Axis power in North Africa
  45. b. The Americans Join the Battle Soviets wanted the Allies to invade Europe, to create a second front so that Hitler would have to pull away from Soviet territory British and America leaders said that it would take time Invaded North Africa first November 1942 a combined British and American force landed in North Africa Led by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower Faced little resistance and the French soon joined them
  46. iv. Put Rommel in a difficult spot Supply problems continued to worsen v. May 1943, the Germans and Italians surrender North Africa Nearly 250,000 Axis soldiers were taken prisoner
  47. c. Fighting in Italy Next goal for Allies was Italy July 1943, Allied moved their forces from North Africa and landed on the island of Sicily Italian resistance was weakening The government will force Benito Mussolini out of power by the end of the month Allies captured the island and moved to take mainland Italy September 1943, Allies met German resistance
  48. 3. A Turning Point in the Soviet Union The Battle of Stalingrad Spring 1942, Hitler orders renewed assaults on the Soviet Union Summer 1942, Axis force was poised to take the industrial city of Stalingrad Stalingrad One of the largest cities in the Soviet Union Factories produced tanks, guns and other military supplies Stalingrad’s ports shipped grain, oil and other products throughout the Soviet Union
  49. iv. The Battle of Stalingrad After they had bombed the city into rubble, the Axis troops moved into the city to wipe out the surviving Soviets Joseph Stalin wanted to hold the city that was named after him at all costs The costs were high Tens of thousands on both sides died
  50. v. Fall 1943, Soviet marshal Georgy Zhukov gathered his remaining forces for a counterattack vi. Broke through the Axis defenses and surrounded 250,000 men vii. Hitler refused to allow his troops to retreat west Wanted his troops to stand and fight Promised to supply them by air
  51. viii. Late January 1943 German commander informed Hitler that his troops had no ammunition, food, or supply Hitler told him surrender was forbidden 90,000 Axis troops would be captured and sent to Soviet prison camps, where many died
  52. ix. Over 1 million Soviet soldiers died in the defense of Stalingrad but the end result was a crushing defeat for Hitler x. German army was now retreating to the west
  53. 4. A Turning Point in the Pacific The Allies Fight Back Early months in the Pacific were difficult for the Allies Japan was better equipped and was fighting closer to home Conquering vital territory, i.e. Singapore, Hong Kong, Burma and many strategic islands
  54. iii. One target was the Philippines General Douglas MacArthur led forces in a doomed defense America surrendered the Philippines in April 1942 Japanese forced 70,000 prisoners to march up the Bataan Peninsula to a distant camp Became known as the Bataan Death March Captors kill 600 Americans and 10,000 Filipino prisoners Thousands more perished in the prison camps
  55. b. The Battle of the Coral Sea Japan was at its height of power in May 1942 Japanese and American aircraft carriers met in the Coral Sea Battle took place as Japan was preparing to invade the British controlled Port Moresby on the island of New Guinea Group of Allied forces tried to stop the attack Both sides lost an aircraft carrier This hurt America more than Japan 1st time Japan’s advance was stopped
  56. c. The Battle of Midway June 1942 Japan and American carriers fought again at the Battle of Midway Japanese wanted to capture the island of Midway, that was home to a key American military base Japanese had the advantage with the number of ships and aircraft carriers they could bring to Midway
  57. iv. Americans had a greater advantage: they had broken the Japanese code used to transmit messages Americans knew the date and location of the planned Japanese attack Allowed American admiral Chester Nimitz to plan an effective defense that over came the Japanese superiority in firepower v. Americans destroyed 4 carriers and the Japanese only 1 vi. Sent a heavy blow to the Japanese navy
  58. d. Island Hopping Battle of Midway had changed the balance of power in the Pacific This allowed the Allies to go on the offensive Pursued a strategy called island hopping They would skip over Japanese strongholds and capture weaker targets The captured islands would serve as base for the next attack
  59. iii. Battle of Guadalcanal Six month battle Each side won small victories The Japanese finally fled the island in February 1943
  60. iv. Battle of Leyte Gulf Took place in October 1944 Largest naval battle ever fought First major battle in the Philippines First major use of a new Japanese weapon: The Kamikaze attack Kamikazes were Japanese pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and deliberately crashed into Allied ships, sacrificing their own lives in the process Battle ended in Allied victory It would take many more months of fighting to take control of the Philippines
  61. The Holocaust
  62. 1. Nazi Anti-Semitism The Jews At the time of Hitler’s rise to power there were 9 million Jews in Europe Most lived outside of Germany Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s problems
  63. iii. The 1930s The Nuremberg Laws created a separate legal status for German Jews Thousands were deported from Germany Deported, is to be forced to leave a country Many left Germany on their own
  64. iv. Emigration was not an option for many German laws left many without money or property Many countries were often unwilling to take in the poor immigrants v. At the start of WWII 250,000 Jews still lived in Germany and Austria Emigration became more difficult Germany outlaws it in 1941
  65. 2. The Final Solution The Final Solution The deliberate mass execution of Jews The Killing Begins Nazis used several brutal methods to deal with the Jewish civilization under German control
  66. Initially Jews were forced into the ghetto A confined area of the city Walls or barbed wire fences prevented the Jews from leaving Armed guards shot anyone trying to escape Warsaw Most notorious ghetto Located in Poland Housed 400,000 people Most died from starvation or were murdered by the Nazis
  67. 2. Concentration Camps Labor camps Meant to hold people considered to be enemies of the state Forced to work as slave laborers Some were subjected to cruel medical experiments All endured severe hunger, which killed many
  68. ii. Hitler’s forces carried out large scale executions of Jews and other civilians in villages across Poland iii. Mobile Killing Units Established during Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 Carried out execution of Jews on a massive scale Often aided by local people and police Called collaborators An example: BabiYar Located near Kiev In one two-day period in September 1941, 35,000 Jews were murdered
  69. iv. Nazi leaders were not satisfied because the killing left behind too much evidence Germans will set up special concentration camps in Poland for the main purpose of killing large number of Jews and destroying their bodies Known as Death Camps Famous one is Auschwitz Had specially designed gas chambers in which thousands of people were killed everyday Also had furnaces for the disposal of bodies
  70. c. The Victims Jews were not the only victims of Nazi concentration and death camps Imprisoned other groups thought to be inferior i.e. Poles, Slaves, homosexuals, people with disabilities and the Romany Romany were an ethnic group known as Gypsies By the end of the war about 5 million from these groups had died in Nazi camps
  71. iii. Jews however suffered the most 6 million, that is 2 out 3 Jews in Europe died at Nazi hands Entire families were killed This is known today as the Holocaust
  72. 3. The World Reacts Other Countries Other countries were aware of what was going on in Germany before the war Tried to shield the brutality of Hitler during the war, from the outside world
  73. b. The United States 1942 People in the U.S. and Europe began to hear reports of widespread killing of Jews in Europe At first seemed too horrific to believe Reports were confirmed and led to the U.S. and Great Britain meeting to discuss possible responses
  74. ii. January 1944 The United States established the War Refugee Board to help rescue European Jews This was after million had already died Board helped save 200,000 Jews
  75. iii. Allied leaders were unwilling to take action, like bombing the railroad lines that led to the death camps Allied leaders did not want to do anything that would interfere with the war effort Apathy and anti-Semitism also contributed to this inaction
  76. iv. Sumer 1944 Soviet troops were the first to discover an abandoned death camp in Poland Germans had tried to cover up evidence of their crimes before the Allies arrived This included killing or removing the prisoners
  77. v. January 1945 Soviets liberated Auschwitz They found 7,000 starving survivors Also found hundreds of thousands of pieces of clothing Strong indication that more people had been housed there vi. April 1945 Americans reached Buchenwald Found thousands of corpses as well as many inmates who were nearly dead Around the same time the British reached Bergen-Belsen camp They found tens of thousands were murdered there
  78. vii. Soldier who made the discoveries were shocked by what they had found there viii. The scenes of horror gave a clear picture of what a world under Hitler would have been like
  79. The End of The War
  80. 1. War Ends in Europe Soviet Victories In early 1944, the Soviets finally ended the siege of Leningrad Major offensive in the summer led to great success for the Soviets 800,000 casualties for the Germans Soviet Union began pushing Germans back into central Europe By the end of January 1945, Soviets were within 40 miles of Berlin
  81. b. D-Day Allies were finalizing their plans for a massive invasion of Western Europe An effective invasion would be difficult The assault would have to come by sea Also had to be made against strong German positions
  82. iii. Preparations were made by American generals George Marshall and Dwight D. Eisenhower iv. Allies also need to develop specialized equipment for transporting tanks and troops across open water v. Also staged a complex plan to mislead Hitler about where the invasion would take place
  83. vi. June 6, 1944- D-Day Allied forces invaded France Over 150,000 troops land on the beaches on Normandy and forced their way through the strong German defenses High casualties but was a success for the Allies Once the beaches were secure more soldiers came By July nearly 1 million soldiers had come ashore
  84. vii. Allied forces broke through German defenses in July viii. Quickly re-conquered much of France ix. By end of August Germans had surrendered Paris
  85. c. The Battle of the Bulge December 1944- Hitler ordered one last, massive counterattack in Belgium Germans made solid advances at first Produced a bulge in the Allied battle lines Battle became known as the Battle of the Bulge
  86. ii. January 1945, The Allies crushed the German offensive at the Battle of the Bulge Defeat marked the end of major German resistance iii. Within two months Allied forces crossed the Rhine River and were headed toward Berlin
  87. d. The Germans Surrender Soviets surrounded Berlin in late April 1945 They found Hitler’s body on May 2 He had taken his own life Germany surrendered on May 7 Next day was proclaimed V-E Day
  88. 2. War Ends in the Pacific Final Battles Mid-1944, American bombers had begun making regular bombing raids on Japanese cities This was done at great risk for American pilots Americans need islands closer to Japan to continue making these raids
  89. iii. Battle of Iwo Jima Started in February 1945 when Allied troops landed on the island Battle lasted a month 7,000 Americans died capturing the island Japanese had 20,000 on the island; all but a thousand of them fought to the death
  90. iv. After Iwo Jima, Americans invaded Okinawa v. Battle of Okinawa Lasted 3 months 12,000 Americans died Japanese lost Lost nearly all of the more than 100,000 Japanese defenders
  91. b. The Atomic Bomb Next step was for the Allies to take Japan Japanese defenders’ willingness to fight to the death led military leaders to conclude that an invasion of Japan would be too costly Estimated it would cost up to 1 million lives
  92. iii. Leaders considered another option: the atomic bomb Weapon used energy released by the splitting of atoms More powerful than regular bombs iv. Program to develop the bomb started in 1939; it was successfully tested in July 1945
  93. v. Harry S. Truman Became president when Roosevelt died in May 1945 Advisors believed that using the atomic bomb would help bring the war to an end and help save lives Others believed it should only be used as a last resort Truman decided to drop the bomb
  94. vi. July 26, 1945 Allies issue a demand for Japan’s surrender Japanese did not respond Plans moved forward to use the bomb
  95. vii. August 6 An American plane dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima Devastation More than 70,000 were killed instantly Thousands of buildings destroyed Japanese still did not surrender
  96. viii. August 9 Americans drop a second bomb over the city of Nagasaki Devastation 75,000 people died Tens of thousands of residents in both cities would die later from radiation poisoning
  97. ix. August 15, 1945 Emperor Hirohito surrendered Known as V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day)
  98. 3. The Postwar World Planning for the Future Allied leaders had been planning for the day the war would end July 1941 Roosevelt and Churchill met They issued the Atlantic Charter Outlined what the two leaders saw as the purpose of the war They proclaimed that they sought no territorial gain Looked forward to a peaceful world in which all nations chose their own governments and worked together for mutual prosperity
  99. iii. November 1943 Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at a conference in Tehran, Iran They agreed on a schedule for the D-Day invasion Also agreed to work together in the peace that would follow after the war
  100. b. Yalta and Potsdam Early 1945 Allies were on the brink of victory Had difficulties agreeing on the plans for peace
  101. ii. The Yalta Conference Primary goal of the conference was to reach agreement on what to do with postwar Europe Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed on plans for governing Germany after the war Stalin got his way on other key points He was able to keep territory that had formerly been part of Poland He promised to respect democratic ideals in the Eastern European countries his armies now occupied
  102. 4. Roosevelt won some points Persuaded Stalin to join the fight against Japan as soon as the war in Europe ended Also convinced Stalin to join a new world organization proposed by the Allies….The United Nations
  103. 5. The United Nations Was designed to encourage international cooperation and prevent war June 1945 representatives of many of the world’s nations signed the UN charter United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union and China formed the UN Security Council Had more power than other member nations
  104. iii. July 1945 Allies met again in Germany in the city of Potsdam Potsdam Conference Took place among ill will between the Soviets and the Allies Discussed many issues concerning postwar Europe Had difficulty reaching agreement