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Human Evolution

Human Evolution

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Human Evolution

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  1. Human Evolution Alan Morales, M.Ed., ATC, LAT

  2. modern human modern chimp A. afarensis "Lucy"

  3. Primates Lab • Homo sapien, sapien (Aboriginal human) • Bonobo • Homo ergaster (1.8 mya) • Homo ergaster (boy) • Homo floriesnesis • Homo neanderthal • Chimpanzee (male) • Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) • Homo sapien, sapien (12 month old) • Chimpanzee (12 month old) • Homo sapien, sapien (Cro-Magnon) • Homo sapien, sapien (Ancestral )

  4. Lab Answers • Known Human • Model A • Model I • Model K • Model L • Model F • Model D • Model C • Model E • Model H • Model B • Model G • Model J • Known Gorilla

  5. Overview • Evolution of Primates • Evolution of Hominids • Focus on Homo • Human Variation • Humans as a selective agent

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF HOMO

  7. Early Primates • Prosimians (~58mya) • Monkeys (35mya) • Apes (23mya) • Hominids (~6mya)

  8. Two main groups of primates: • 1. Strepsirrhines (wet-nosed primates) • Prosimians – lemurs, lorises, pottos & tarsiers • 2. Haplorhines (dry-nosed primates) • Anthropoids – monkeys, apes and humans

  9. Prosimians Lemurs Tarsiers Pottos Loris

  10. Haplorhines • Old World Monkeys: • New World monkeys • Apes Old World Monkey: Long snout Close nostrils Non-prehensile tail New World Monkey: Flat face Wide nostrils Prehensile tail

  11. Haplorhines • Apes • Lesser Apes • Gibbons • Great Apes • Orangutans, Gorilla, Chimpanzees, and Humans

  12. Primate Characteristics • Binocular vision • Well-developed cerebrum • Long fingers & toes • Arms that can rotate around shoulder joint • Upright posture

  13. Binocular Color Vision

  14. Primate Hands

  15. Mobile Limbs • Most primates have flat nails as well as sensitive pads on the undersides of fingers and toes. • Many also have both an opposable big toe and thumb. • Mobile limbs and clawless opposable digits allow primates to freely grasp and release tree limbs.

  16. Expanded brain capacity • Social behaviors • Intelligences

  17. Other important features • Upright posture. • Human and Gorrilla Comparison

  18. Hominid Evolutionary Tree

  19. Homo neanderthalensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Homo erectus Homo habilis Common ancestor Modern apes Sequence of Human EvolutionOne of several possibilities Homo sapiens

  20. Intermission

  21. CLASSIFICATION OF Homo Sapiens

  22. Pre-hominid (Hominin) Evolution • Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 - ? mya • A. anamensis 4.2 - 3.9 • A. afarensis 4.2 - 2.5 • A. bahrelghazali 3.5 - 3.0 • A. africanus 3.5 - 2.5 • P. aethiopicus 2.7 - 2.3 • A. garhi 2.5 - ? • P. boisei 2.3 - 1.3 • P. robustus 2.0 - 1.0 • Bipedalism • Tools • Language Reconstruction of Australopithecine

  23. Hominid Evolution • Homo habilis (2.0 – 1.6mya) • H. rudolfensis (2.4-1.6mya) • H. erectus (1.9-27kyBP) • H. heidelbergensis (800-100kyBP) • H. neanderthalensis (300-30kyBP) • H. sapiens (130kyBP – present) Scale: Millions of Years BP

  24. Evolution Human Origination

  25. Out of Africa Theory East Africa Rift Valley

  26. Map of Australopithecine Finds Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

  27. Hominid Migitration

  28. Sahelanthropus tchadensis • 6 to 7 million years ago • Flat face like Homo • Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp • Walked upright • Sahelanthropus tchadensis Video

  29. Hominids • Between 7 and 6 million years ago • Hominid family (modern humans) • Bipedal upright (two-foot, locomotion) • Developed opposable thumbs adapted for grasping. • Developed large brains. • Chimpanzees- 280 to 450 cubic centimeters. • Homo sapiens-1200 to 1600 cubic centimeters!

  30. To be Genus: Homo Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Homo Sapien Standard Primate Characteristics: upright, bipedal posture much expanded brain Opposable thumb well defined sexual gender extended childhood language society culture

  31. Human Ancestors

  32. Human Evolution

  33. A. boisei A. afarensis A. africanus A. robustus

  34. “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis Pronouncation An Example of Mosaic Evolution