WATER POLLUTION NAME = JASMEEN V. MARU BRANCH = MECHANICAL 1 ST YEAR ROLL NO. = 195 CLASS = B BATCH = B2 SUBJECT = ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY
Water on Earth • Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth • A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. • Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 97.2% of the Earth's water. • The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 90% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth's albedo. • Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, of glaciers is glaciology, of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.
WATER POLLUTION • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater). • Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. • Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION. • 1) INDUSTRY • Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. • Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans. • Pollutants from industrial sources include: • Asbestos – This pollutant is a serious health hazard . Asbestos fibres can be inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and liver cancer. • Lead – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.
2) OIL POLLUTION IN WATER • Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping. • Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping. • An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place. • Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters. • Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
HARMS OF WATER POLLUTION • Virtually all types of water pollution are harmful to the health of humans and animals. Water pollution may not damage our health immediately but can be harmful after long term exposure. Different forms of pollutants affect the health of animals in different ways: • Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes and rivers. These are toxic to marine life such as fish and shellfish, and subsequently to the humans who eat them. • Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. Some of the toxins in industrial waste may only have a mild effect whereas other can be fatal. They can cause immune suppression, acute poisoning. • Microbial pollutants from sewage often result in infectious diseases that infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water. Microbial water pollution is a major problem in the developing world, with diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever being the primary cause of infant mortality.
MAKING OURSELVES SAFE Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable can be made potable by filtration or distillation (heating it until it becomes water vapor, and then capturing the vapor without any of the impurities it leaves behind), or by other methods (chemical or heat treatment that kills bacteria). Sometimes the term safe water is applied to potable water of a lower quality threshold . Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or "safe for bathing". Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water).
What is Sewage treatment Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants.
ITS OBJECTIVES Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.
HOW DOES IT GET CREATED? • Sewage is created by residences, institutions, and commercial and industrial establishments. Raw influent (sewage) includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks, and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. • In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. A lot of sewage also includes some surface water from roofs or hard-standing areas. • Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential, commercial, and industrial liquid waste discharges, and may include storm water runoff. • Examples of treatment processes used for storm water include sedimentation basins, wetlands, buried concrete vaults with various kinds of filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids
USES OF WATER There are lots of uses of water. They are listed below : • Water is used for drinking, washing , bathing , etc. • Its also used for irrigation purpose. • A lot of water is used to make food. Almost every food contains water
MORE USES OF WATER • Water is also used in industry • Water is used in dams to manufacture hydro-electricity • Its also used in vehicles to make the temperature of the engine to cool down. • Its also used in construction work.
RIVERS ACTION PLAN • There are lots of river action plans taken by the government taken to make the rivers pollution less. • In the few slides after this you will see about the few two India's river action plans.
GANGA ACTION PLAN • An plan was setup to save river Ganga. • The plan was launched in 1985. • It was aimed to reduce the pollution levels in the ganga. • But, the increasing population and • industrialization have already damaged • this mighty river beyond repair.
YAMUNA ACTION PLAN • This plan was setup to save river Yamuna. • It was launched in 1993. • It had a plan to restore the river yamuna to its past glory. • There were two plans setup named as YAP-I and YAP-II.
Do’s • Reuse of water whenever possible, Kitchen water can be used for watering the plant. • Plan your kitchen activity to avoid wastage of fuel and water. • Plastic materials can be a murder weapons for wildlife, minimise their use. Blown from land and roadsides, they often end up in the water, where they can entangle and kill birds and fishes.
More Do’s • Take showers instead of baths. Showers use less water - if you limit them to five minutes. Install low-flow shower-heads • Use sprinkler for irrigation. • Use scientific method of application fertilizers. . • Run your dishwasher, washing machine, and dryer only when you have full loads. · When possible, use an outdoor clothesline instead of aclothes dryer. • Fix leaks promptly. A dripping joint can waste more than 76 liters of water a day. .
DONT'S • Don't keep on the tap running while having, bath, brushing teeth, or washing dishes it wastes about 2 liters of water every minute. • Don’t hose down your lawn or corridor to clean it. Sweep it off. • Don’t wash the clothes and kitchen utensils in the water bodies • Don’t litter. When camping, keep the areas clean.
More Dont ’s • Avoid throwing flowers, sweets, puja materials into a river. It will degrade the quality of water. The river wont be happy with this. • Avoid throwing dead bodies in a river. This will ultimately landing in the mouth of dogs, vultures & other animals. • Never dump anything into the water bodies. • Avoid use of weedicides
SAVE THE EARTH AND ITS WATER ITS THE ONLY ONE WE HAVE THANK YOU