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Feed Nutrients

Feed Nutrients

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Feed Nutrients

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  1. Feed Nutrients Objectives: Identify major functions of basic nutrient groups and feeds that are sources for each.

  2. Nutrients • A chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life. • Necessary for cells to live, grow, and function properly. • Many needed and must be in the proper balance • Lack of one or more nutrients will slow growth

  3. 5 Groups of Nutrients • Energy Nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and oils) • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals • Water

  4. Energy Nutrients - Carbohydrates • Main energy function • Made up of sugars, starches, cellulose, and lignin • Chemically composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Energy powers muscular movement • Produce body heat • Extra Carbs are stored as fat

  5. Simple Sugars and Starches Referred as nitrogen free extract (nfe) Come from cereal grains (corn, etc) Complex Cellulose and lignin Called Fiber More difficult to digest Found mostly in roughages (hay, grass) Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

  6. Fiber Content of Feeds • Simple stomached animals can not digest large amounts of fiber, and their ration must be made up of mostly cereal grains. • Ruminant animals can eat large amounts of fiber, and a high percentage of their ration is roughage

  7. Energy Nutrients - Fats and Oils • Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but contain more carbon and hydrogen atoms than carbohydrates • For this reason fats have 2.25 times as much energy value than carbohydrates • Fats are solid at body temperature • Oils are liquid at body temperature

  8. Fats and Oils • They are easily digested in the animal • Provide energy and body heat • Carry fat-soluble vitamins • Come from both vegetable and animal sources • Vegetable fat ranges from 1.8 to 4.4 % • Animal fat ranges from 1 to 10.6 %

  9. Crude Protein • Total Protein • Not all is digested • 60% in ruminant rations is digested • 75% in non-ruminant rations is digested • Digestible Protein- amount of true protein in the feed

  10. Proteins • Organic compounds made up of amino acids • Contain: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some may contain sulphur, phosphorus, and iron • Supply materials to build body tissue (ligaments, hair, hooves, skin, organs, and muscle are partially formed by protein)

  11. Nutrients • If an animal takes in more protein than needed, nitrogen is separated and given off as urine • The material left is then is then converted into energy or body fat • Essential amino acids - needed by the animal and the animal can’t produce the amino acid • Non - Essential amino acids - needed by the animal but are synthesized from other amino acids.

  12. Non-Essential Amino Acids • Needed by animals but synthesized in the body from another amino acids there for do not need to be provided in the ration

  13. Amino Acids in Ruminant and Non- Ruminant Animals • Non-ruminant animals can not synthesize the essential amino acids fast enough to meet the animals needs therefore those essential amino acids must be provided in the ration • Ruminant animals generally synthesize the essential amino acids by the rumen at a rate to meet the needs of the animal

  14. Sources of Protein • Animal source protein are considered good-quality proteins since they contain a good balance of essential amino acids • Plant proteins are thought to be poor-quality proteins because they lack some amino acids

  15. Proteins in Ruminants • Can be met by feeding proteins of vegetable sources • Also by feeding urea (synthetic nitrogen source made from air, water and carbon) • Urea is mixed with the ration to to provide nitrogen for making amino acids in the ruminants body

  16. Proteins in Simple Stomached Animals • Need to feed balanced ration with the right balance of essential amino acids • If grains are combined in the correct combination they will provide a balanced ration. • Soybean meal is most commonly used

  17. Plant Linseed meal Dehulled soybean meal Cottonseed meal Dehydrated alfalfa meal Animal Meat meal Fish meal Dried whey Casein Dried Milk Protein Sources

  18. Vitamins • Trace organic compounds or needed in small amounts • All vitamins contain carbon • Two types of vitamins: Fat soluble and Water soluble

  19. Fat Soluble Vitamins • Dissolved in fat • Vitamins A, D, E, and K • Vitamin A - associated with healthy eyes, good conception rate, and disease resistance • Vitamin D - assoc. with good bone development and mineral balance of the blood

  20. Fat Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin E - associated with normal reproduction and muscle development Can also help immune system • Vitamin K - Helps with blood clotting and prevents excessive bleeding from injuries

  21. Sources of Fat Soluble Vitamins • Green leafy hay • Yellow Corn • Cod Liver • Fish Oils • Wheat Oil • Vitamin D is produced in the body when sunlight is present

  22. Water Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin C - Helps teeth and bone formation and prevents infections • Vitamin B complex - needed for chemical reactions in the body and help improve appetite, growth and reproduction

  23. Sources of Water Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin C is found in green pastures and also farm animals can produce enough vitamin C in their body • Vitamin B complex sources- green pastures, cereal grains, hay, milk, fish solubles, and animal proteins

  24. Minerals • Needed in small amounts • Contain NO Carbon (if the feed was burned the ash left would be minerals) • Provide material for growth of bones, teeth, tissue, regulate chemical processes, aid in muscular activities, and release energy for body heat • Two types - Major and Trace Minerals

  25. Major Minerals • Needed in large amounts • Salt, calcium, and phosphorus

  26. Trace Minerals • Needed in small amounts • Potassium, sulfur, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, boron, molybdenum, fluorine, and selenium • Most trace minerals are in the feed

  27. Water • Makes up the most of the living organism (40%-80%) • Helps dissolve nutrients, controls body temperature of the animals body. • Water in the blood acts as a carrier of nutrients and is necessary for chemical reactions • Animals can live longer without food than water