270 likes | 450 Vues
Contraception and Safer Sex. Grade 10 PDCP. Contraception Defined …. Prevention of conception or pregnancy. Abstinence Withdrawal Condoms Diaphragm Spermicides Norplant. Birth Control Pill Birth Control Patch (Evra) Depo-Provera NuvaRing IUDs Emergency Contraception.
E N D
Contraception and Safer Sex Grade 10 PDCP
Contraception Defined… Prevention of conception or pregnancy
Abstinence Withdrawal Condoms Diaphragm Spermicides Norplant Birth Control Pill Birth Control Patch (Evra) Depo-Provera NuvaRing IUDs EmergencyContraception Methods of Birth Control
Abstinence/Postponing Intercourse • Means not having vaginal or anal intercourse • Only 100% effective method of birth control • Need to know your limits and communicate them to your partner
Withdrawal • It is often referred to as the Pull out Method of Birth Control • It is when the male removes his penis from the female’s vagina before ejaculation occurs. • Over the course of 1 year, about 27 out of 100 typical couples who rely on withdrawal to prevent pregnancy will have an accidental pregnancy. • Ineffective because males will pre-ejaculate before full ejaculation occurs.
Condoms • Prevents semen from entering the vagina • Effectiveness ~ 88% without spermicide ~ 97% with spermicide • No prescription needed • Readily available • Easy to use • Protects from pregnancy and some STIs
Condoms • If you buy the right size, it shouldn’t be uncomfortable. • The real problem is about embarrassment • Would you rather be embarrassed because you have to put on a condom, or because you have a nasty rash, worts or you don’t want to seem “uncool.” • Having a baby or an STI will affect you for the rest of your life. Think about that before you engage in unprotected sex.
Diaphram • A diaphragm is a shallow dome-shaped cap of latexwith a flexible rim. • It is filled with spermicide and covers the entry to the cervix. • It can be inserted hours before intercourse. • Neither partner can feel the diaphragm • Must be fitted by a doctor or in a clinic • It must be left in 6 hours after intercourse. • In one year, there is a 20% rate of failure.
Spermicides • Chemicals that kill sperm. • They come in many forms such as foams, jellies, gels and suppositories. • Spermacides are messy and may cause burning and irritation for both the male and female. • Only effective for one hour, thus it must be inserted right before intercourse. • Spermacides have a 20-30% failure rate. • Can be purchased at any drug store.
Oral Contraceptives • Better known as “the pill” • Contains estrogen and progesterone • Prevents ovulation • Thickens cervical mucus to block sperm • Over 99% effective if used properly • Must be taken within the same 2 hour time period every day • Need a prescription
Myths and Facts about the Pill Myth: The pill can cause Acne Fact: Some oral contraceptives even reduce acne Myth: If you miss more than one pill you can just double or triple the pill when you remember. Fact: If you miss one pill during a cycle, a double dose must be taken the next day. If another pill is missed, the method is then deemed ineffective and another birth control method must be used (ex. Condom).
Myth: Women who take the pill should have periodic pill breaks. • Fact: Once your system is used to the pill you should keep on taking it to avoid irregular cycles as well as pregnancy. After 10 years of taking the pill, talk to your doctor about other methods. • Myth: The pill causes weight gain. • Fact: The estrogen may cause women to feel bloated in the beginning, but this side effect will stop over time.
Birth Control Patch (Evra) • Hormonal patch worn on skin • Same action as oral contraceptives • 99% effective if used properly • Changed same day every week for 3 consecutive weeks • Week 4 is patch free
Depo-Provera • An injection given every 12 weeks • Contains progesterone only • Same action as birth control pills • Over 99% effective if given every 10-13 weeks • Lighter periods or no periods at all • Not recommended for adolescents
NuvaRing • Contains 2 types of hormones: estrogen and progestin, which work together to prevent the ovaries from producing mature eggs • Inserted into the vagina and removed after 3 weeks. • Week 4 is ring-free • Same hormones, action and effectiveness as birth control pills and patch
IUD • Inserted into the vagina by a physician. • Cost is $60-$100. • Provides up to 5 years of pregnancy protection. • Good for those people looking for a long term method of birth control, but not recommended for adolescents. • Only 1 out of 100 people will become pregnant. • May cause irregular vaginal bleeding in some people.
Emergency Contraception • Should not be used as a regular method of birth control • Contains estrogen and progesterone • Prevents egg from being released • Effective up to 3 days following unprotected intercourse • Side effects include vomiting and diarrhea.
Important Warning for those who Smoke • Smoking, while taking birth control pills, can increase your risk of a heart attack dramatically. • There is an increased risks of blood clots. They can go anywhere in your body. When they go to your brain they cause a stroke.
Where to go for help • School Health Nurse • Sexual Health Center • Family Doctor • After Hours Clinic • Emergency Department