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History of Floral Design

History of Floral Design

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History of Floral Design

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  1. History of Floral Design 8945A – Ag 363

  2. Vocabulary • Analogous – a color scheme that uses any three adjacent colors from the color wheel • Complementary – a color scheme consisting of any two colors located opposite each other on the color wheel when used together in a design • Cornucopia – a woven basket or container designed in the shape of a goat’s horn and shown spilling flowers or fruit

  3. Vocabulary • Corsage – a grouping of flowers worn by a woman • Garland – a wreath–shaped ornament, usually worn on the head, that is constructed from flowers and foliage • Hogarthian curve – a design having the shape of a modified S form, the upper portion using 2/3rds of the figure and creating a free-flowing motion that leads the lines of the design to the focal point

  4. Vocabulary • Ikebana – the art of Japenese floral arrangement • Liknon – a Roman floral container consisting of a basket that was high at the back and flattened in front • Line design - oriental style of design • Line-mass design – American style of design that combines the linear shapes with the massing of flowers at the focal point

  5. Vocabulary • Mass Design – European floral design style • Nosegay – a grouping of closely spaced flowers in a hand-held floral arrangement • Shin – the principle element of Japanese floral design (the main stem in arrangements that represent heaven)

  6. Vocabulary • Soe – the secondary element of Japanese floral designs (represents man in a Japanese design) • Tai – the tertiary line of a Japanese design (represents earth in an arrangement) • Tuzzy-muzzy – a small bouquet or arrangement originally designed to hide a vial of smelling salts for young women in Europe and America

  7. Introduction • Have you ever wondered when the art of floral design? • Whose idea was it to arrange and group flowers together? • How did our modern design originate?

  8. Introduction • Since the beginning of civilization flowers have covered the earth, providing color and beauty • Flowers have become more important in the lives of people • Flowers add beauty to our surroundings and signify emotions of love and friendship

  9. Introduction • This is important to the designer • Have a better understanding of the origins of floral design used today • May have to create an arrangement to complement a surrounding that represents a specific style or period of time

  10. Egyptian Period (2800-25 BC) • Flowers played an important part in the lives of the Egyptians • Their gardens displayed a wide variety of plant species • Flower used included water lilies, lotus, roses, violets, narcissus, and jasmine

  11. Egyptians • Wore garlands or wreaths of flowers on their heads • Blossoms of water lilies were placed in elaborately constructed vases, bowls, and jars • They favored wide-mouth containers • Designs were typically orderly w/ alternating patterns of flowers

  12. Egyptians • These containers were often made of gold, silver, or glass • Style can be described as being clear and simple • Colors of red, yellow, and blue were predominately used • Repetition was common with types, colors, and heights of flowers being repeated in a pattern throughout the design

  13. Greek Period (600-146BC) • Did not arrange their flowers in vases or bouquets • During festivals and ceremonies, flowers were scattered on the ground • Flowers were primarily used to make garlands or wreaths to be worn or carried

  14. Greek Period • Wreathes were presented to outstanding athletes to symbolize victory and dedication • Grew potted plants indoors and in hothouses to supply the desired plant materials • first to have professional florist who did floral work for the people

  15. Greek Period • The cornucopia or horn of plenty was first introduced by the Greek culture • Color was not important • The flowers, fragrance, and symbolism associated with each flower were of foremost importance

  16. Chinese Period (500 BC – 100 AD) • Flowers and plant materials were used in China for decorating the altars used in religious ceremonies performed by Buddhist Priests • Arranged flowers in massive bronze ceremonial vessels

  17. Chinese Period • Simplicity as taught by Confucius led to real enjoyment • Only allowed to use ct flowers sparingly • Oriental influence placed emphasis on the individual form, texture and color of plant material

  18. Chinese Period • Four seasons were usually portrayed by the white-blossomed plum in the winter, the peony in the spring, the lotus in the summer, and the chrysanthemum in the fall

  19. Chinese Period • Were usually large, symmetrical, and simple • Lighter flowers were positioned in the outer portions of the design while darker flowers were placed nearest the base

  20. Chinese V Japanese Design • Chinese style is less stylized • Japanese style is very formal & follows strict rules of construction

  21. Roman Period (28 BC – 325 AD) • Used Roses at evening banquets and scattered these roses over the floor • Scarves filled with blossoms were offered at the alter as part of the religious ceremonies

  22. Roman Period • Began arranging flowers in a type of basket called a liknon • The flowers used in these arrangements were highly fragrant and brightly colored

  23. Byzantine Period (320-600AD) • Garlands narrow bands of fruits and flowers alternated with foliage • Contributed to floral art through the introduction of symmetrical, tree-style designs

  24. Byzantine Period • Foliage was arranged in containers to resemble symmetrical, conical trees • Flowers and fruit were also used at regular intervals throughout the design • Color schemes used were analogous accented with complimentary color

  25. Middle Ages (476-1400AD) • Portrays flowers arranged in vases • Floral paintings show a more informal and naturalistic appearance • Commonly used containers were of Chinese porcelain that was highly decorated with birds • Fragrant Flowers were highly favored for strewing on the ground, freshening the air, and making wreaths/garlands

  26. Japanese Period (586 AD) • This art originated with the Ikenobo school of floral art. • Ikebana became widely used in worldly and religious art

  27. Japanese Period • Characterized by • Linear forms • Straight, curved, or angular lines of flowers and foliage balance the bold open spaces between the plant materials • Principle shows that “man is found between the sphere of heaven and the soil of the earth” • Heaven is the subject - Shin • Man as the secondary - Soe • Earth is the object - Tai

  28. Renaissance Period (1400-1600AD) • Along with the Rebirth of learning came an interest in gardening • Extensive gardens of flowers were planted for beauty instead of for utilitarian purposes • Bright colors and forms of flowers were used as focus

  29. Renaissance Period • Flowers were positioned in the design in a loose, un-crowded, an airy manner • Brilliant colors in the designs to create contrast with the white, interior walls of homes and buildings • Paintings from this period often show vases of flowers because flowers had great symbolism • The rose symbolized sacred or profane love

  30. Renaissance Period • Single white lily placed in a jug is typical • Flowers arranged in vases so that only blossoms were visible • Elaborate metal containers with well formed bases, stems, necks & handles were popular • Some containers were made especially for flowers (holes in a removable lid to hold flowers in place)

  31. Baroque Period (1600-1775 AD) • Art is no longer just for the church or nobility, it is now accessible to the middle class • Paintings show arrangements in everyday settings • Many interiors were over decorated and gaudy • Designs became more creative and expressive

  32. Baroque Period • Massive and sturdy • Metal and stone urns • Chinese and Japanese vases, bowls, and flasks

  33. Flemish Style (1550-1750 AD) • Tulips were used abundantly in the Flemish designs and combines with a variety of other flower types • They were the first to combine the mass designs of the Romans and the line designs of the Orient into Line-mass designs • They never physically arranged flowers in to designs • Painted pictures of floral designs

  34. Flemish Style • This could have never happened in “real life” because the flowers in the picture never grew at the same time of the year • During this time period there was no way to preserve the cut life of fresh cut flowers

  35. English Georgian Period (1714-1760AD) • Named for English King George I, II, III • Flowers were used to construct neck and hair pieces for fashionable women

  36. English Georgian Period • Nosegays were first carried by men at first in England • Because body deodorants and colognes did not exist yet and a man’s body odor became rather obvious • The fragrance from the flowers made friendly greetings more tolerable while “keeping the nose happy”

  37. English Georgian Period • Tuzzy-muzzies were designed and placed in bowls • They were used as table centerpieces for both formal and informal events • In the home they were used to freshen damp, musty odors • Fragrant flowers were used because of the belief that their scent would help keep away germs and prevent plagues and diseases

  38. Victorian Period (1820-1914AD) • Use of flowers was very fashionable during the reign of Queen Victoria of England • Named for Queen Victoria who reigned in England from 1837 to 1901 • Victorian interiors were lavishly decorated in heavy colors and patterns

  39. Victorian Period • Time of great enthusiasm about flowers; floral design was taught and recognized as art • First attempt to establish rules for floral arranging

  40. Victorian Period • Described as grouping large masses of flowers, foliage, and grasses together to create a design with no center of interest • Usually round or oval shaped arrangements

  41. American Styles of Floral Design • Early American • Colonial • Neoclassic • American Victorian

  42. Early American Style • Focused on natural styles and arrangements • Wildflowers, grains, and grasses were often placed in everyday jugs and pitchers to make an arrangement

  43. Colonial Style: 1714 - 1780 • Typical arrangements were massed, rounded, and fan shaped bouquets • Casual, open designs were popular

  44. Neoclassic Style • Covered two time periods • Federal Period 1790 - 1825 • Greek Period 1825 - 1845 • Designs were typically broken from English tradition and were influenced by the French • Roses, geraniums, and trailing ivy were popular plant materials

  45. American Victorian: 1845 - 1900 • Also called the Romantic era • Designs copied European Victorian styles • Epergnes were popular containers

  46. Modern Styles of Floral Design • Art Nouveau • Art Deco • Free Form Expression • Geometric Mass Design

  47. Art Nouveau Period: 1890 - 1910 • Style was based on curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants or flowers • Containers were curving and asymmetrical