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Chapter 20 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 20

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Chapter 20

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  1. Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South

  2. Menace of Secession • No war unless South started it • Can’t separate … geographically or politically • Europe would love it • Divide & Conquer

  3. South Carolina Assails Ft. Sumter • South seized number of US arsenals, mints, & other public property • Ft. Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina … most important • Provisions would only last a few weeks • South would view more provisions as attack

  4. …. • Lincoln can’t let Ft. be seized

  5. • Lincoln informed SC • April 12, 1861 …South fired on Ft. Sumter • Lasted 34 hours • South won • 1st Battle of Civil War • North united after battle

  6. • “Tactical defeat into calculated victory” • Lincoln called for volunteers • Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee & North Carolina joined South • Capital moved from Montgomery to Richmond

  7. Brother’s Blood • Border States • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, & West Virginia … believed in slavery but did not secede • Border group contained white population more than half of the South • Maryland, Kentucky, & Missouri would double the manufacturing capacity of South

  8. • Lincoln declared marshal law in Maryland • Deployed troops to West Virginia & Missouri • Not fighting to end slavery … PERSERVE THE UNION • Needed the Border States

  9. ... • Oklahoma Native Americans sided with South … South took up federal payment to NA • NA sent troops • Brothers fought on both sides …Mary Todd Lincoln …South

  10. Balances of Forces • South could fight defensive war … only need to keep North out • North had to invade South, defeat it, & drag back into Union • South had the better officers … Robert E. Lee … offered command of Northern troops 1st • Southerners accustomed to fighting

  11. …. • South few factories … by seizures, blockade running, & own ironworks…. Managed • Short of shoes, uniforms, & blankets • Hunger of troops due to poor transportation • Economy South’s greatest weakness … North’s greatest strength

  12. • North had 3/4th of nation’s wealth • North controlled the seas • More manpower • N- 22 million to S 9 million- including slaves • North had large immigrant population who fought

  13. • Lincoln used trial - & - error to find good generals

  14. Dethroning of King Cotton • Most revolutions worked because of foreign help • South counting on help from GB • GB read UTC • South counting on cotton …GB had a stock pile • North sent food to GB • King Wheat & King Corn replaced King Cotton

  15. Decisiveness of Diplomacy • Trent Affair • Confederate diplomats removed from British ship • GB built Alabama … violation of neutrality • Sunk 250 US ships

  16. Foreign Flare-ups • 2 war ships were being built by GB • If finished North would have invaded Canada • After war GB paid US $15.5 million for damages done by Alabama • Napoleon III placed figure head on Mexican throne … violation of Monroe Doctrine

  17. • After war killed by Mexicans

  18. Davis vs. Lincoln • States rights caused problems for South … difficult to keep united • Davis … overworked… too focused on military & government details • Lincoln more flexible • Lincoln better even though less experienced

  19. Limitations of War Time Liberties • Ways Lincoln violated constitution • Increased army • Advanced $$$ • Suspended habeas corpus • Allowed supervised voting in Border States

  20. Volunteers & Draftees • North & South drafted soldiers • Rich could by their way out in N&S • Draft riots in N …NYC worst …people died …African American lynched • Enlistment bounties • Some $1,000

  21. Economic Stresses of War • North raised taxes to make $$$ • South had little to tax • National Banking Act …1st step toward National Bank since Jackson • South had runaway inflation • South 9,000% North 80%

  22. North’s Economic Plan • New factories • Some took advantage of war • Sizes created to produce clothes • Women went to work • Clara Barton & Dorthea Dix …nurses • Barton started Red Cross

  23. Crushed King Cotton • Civil War crushed Southern finically • Economic cannibalism • Tear up one thing to fix another