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GOAL # 2. How did the forces of nationalism, sectionalism, and expansion impact the United States (1801-1850)?. Nationalism is……. The desire for political independence. Patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation
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GOAL # 2 How did the forces of nationalism, sectionalism, and expansion impact the United States (1801-1850)?
The desire for political independence. • Patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation • Excessive or fanatical devotion to a nation and its interests, often associated with the belief that one country is superior to all other nations.
How did the forces of nationalism impact the United States (1801-1850)? • James Monroe’s “Era of Good Feelings”
post War of 1812 • widespread nationalism, victory against British • no political division, only one party, Democratic-Republican party • Democratic-Republican leaders see need for stronger federal government
National Bank • Protective Tariffs • Infrastructure improvements (roads and canals)
Democratic-Republicans opposed to First National Bank did not re-charter it in 1811 • Financial problems • State and private banks expanded lending issued own bank notes • Interest rates increased during War of 1812, federal government borrowed more • No regulatory action by government to stop practices
John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster support passage of the bill to create the Second National Bank in 1816 • The Bank had power to issue notes that became national currency • The Bank could regulate state banks
The Panic of 1819 • State banks closed • The property of farmers in the West who could not pay mortgages was seized by the Second National Bank
Embargo of goods during War of 1812 allowed US manufacturing to grow • War over, US manufacturers had to compete with cheap goods from Britain • Protective tariff • Opposed by New England shippers and Southern planters
Madison vetoed bill for federal internal improvement plan. • The Constitution did not expressly authorize the federal spending on road and canal construction.
Nationalism and the Judicial Branch • Chief Justice John Marshall
Virginia law that banned the inheritance of land by an enemy ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court • Virginia law in conflict with the Treaty of Paris, 1783, which required states to restore land taken from the loyalists. • The decision established that the Supreme Court was the court of final appeals.
The decision of the Supreme Court was that the federal government was supreme, no state government could interfere with an agency of the federal government. • Taxation of the National Bank by the state of Maryland was a form of interference, therefore, unconstitutional
Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the power to regulate interstate trade. • States had the power to regulate trade within the state. • The decision was written so that commerce included anything that crossed state borders.
Problems with Spanish Florida • General Andrew Jackson • Sec. of State John Q. Adams
In the early 1800s, runaway slaves went to Spanish Florida. • The Seminole Indians used Florida as a base to raid American settlements in Georgia • The Spanish not able to control the border • Sec. of War John C. Calhoun sent Gen. Andrew Jackson into Florida to stop the Seminole raids.
Jackson burnt several villages, seized the Spanish settlements of St. Marks and Pensacola, and removed the Spanish governor from power. • The Spanish government demanded Jackson be punished. • Sec. of State John Q. Adams defended Jackson’s actions, the cause of the problem was the inability of the Spanish to keep order.
Sec. of State Adams used the events in Florida to pressure Spanish to negotiate the border between the US and Florida. • Spain gave Florida to the United States and finalized the western border of the Louisiana Territory.
Monroe Doctrine declared that the Americas were no longer open to any new European colonization. • US could not really back up the Monroe Doctrine if challenged. • Monroe Doctrine set up lasting policy of America stopping European influence in Latin American political affairs
Monroe Doctrine followed President Washington’s guidelines of avoiding entangling alliances in European power struggles.
The Erie Canal was completed in 1825. • The Erie Canal connected Buffalo and Albany, NY. • The Erie Canal connected Lake Erie and the Hudson River.
Congress funded the construction of the National Road in 1806. • The National Road started in Cumberland, Md. • The road reached Wheeling, Va. by 1818. • Livestock and produced traveled east and migrating settlers travelled west in Conestoga wagons.
River travel was faster, cheaper, and more efficient. • Barges could hold more coal and grain. • Loaded barge only travel downstream • 1807, Fulton and Livingston, steamship Clermont, steamed up the Hudson River 150 miles from NY City to Albany in 32 hours • Steamboats made travel reliable, could travel longer distances in either direction.
Steamboats on the Great Lakes and up and down the Mississippi River
Peter Cooper built American engine on British design • 1830, Cooper’s Tom Thumb pulled first passenger train • Travelled at 10 mph for 13 miles, Baltimore to Ellicot City, Maryland • Trains were faster than stagecoach or wagon • Cold travel inland where steamboats could not
TRAINS OPENED THE WEST TO SETTLEMENT AND EXPANDED TRADE BETWEEN REGIONS
The shift from a agricultural based economy to a manufacturing based economy.
Factors that allowed industrialization • Free enterprise: people are free to start and own businesses with little government intervention • People could own and acquire capital • Very little government control • Low tax rates= money to invest • 1830s, states pass general incorporation laws, become a corporation, issue and sell stock without a charter
Laws also limited liability, investor buys stock, business fails, investor only loses investment, not responsible for debts of the business • Industrialization started in the Northeast, fast streams, region had many entreprenuers/merchants with capital to invest in British technology