90 likes | 292 Vues
Lesson 5 Second Declension Nouns. Second Declension Nouns ( - o" -type). 2 nd Decl. - o" -type endings : Sing. Pl. Nom. -o" -oi Gen. -ou -wn Dat. -w/ -oi" Acc. -on -ou" Voc. -e -oi. Example: to,poj (stem = top & ) Sing. Pl. Nom. tovp o" tovp oi Gen. tovp ou tovp wn
E N D
Second Declension Nouns (-o"-type) 2nd Decl. -o"-typeendings: Sing.Pl. Nom. -o" -oi Gen. -ou -wn Dat. -w/ -oi" Acc. -on -ou" Voc. -e -oi Example: to,poj (stem = top&) Sing.Pl. Nom. tovpo" tovpoi Gen. tovpou tovpwn Dat.tovpw/ tovpoi" Acc. tovpon tovpou" Voc. tovpe tovpoi Memorize! • To “decline” a noun is to give all its “cases” in proper order. • Cases indicate grammatical function of noun in sentence (subject, direct object, etc.). • Greek nouns fall into one of three main declension patterns: • 1st declension – mostly feminine nouns • 2nd declension – mostly masculine and neuter nouns • 3rd declension – masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns • 2nd declension nouns with nominative in &oj are mostly masculine (a few are fem.). • Noun accent is “persistent” – stays where it is in nom. sing. if it can.
Second Declension -o"-typeNouns • Translation: • Sing.Pl. • Nominative tovpo" a place (subj.) tovpoiplaces (subj.) • Genitive tovpou of/from a place tovpwn of/from places • Dativetovpw/ to/for/by/with/in a place tovpoi" to/for/by/with/in places • Accusative tovpon a place (obj.) tovpou" places (obj.) • Vocative tovpe O, place tovpoi O, places • Greek nouns have 5 or 8 cases(depending on how you count): • Genitive and ablative have same ending = GA or genitive. • Locative, instrumental, dative have same ending = LID or dative. • Locating (parsing) a noun: • Case, gender, number > dictionary form • to,pouj - acc. masc. pl. > to,poj • to,pw| - dat. (or LID) masc. sing. > to,poj • to,pou - gen. (or GA) masc. sing. > to,poj
Introduction to “Case” English pronouns have case forms: • He sees the son. (nominative = subject) • The son sees him. (objective = direct object) • His son is seeing. (possessive = adjective) English nouns usually do not: • A man sees a son. (nominative = subject) • A son sees a man. (objective = direct object) • A man’s son is seeing. (possessive = adjective) Note: Spelling of man does not change in # 4 and 5. How do we know man is subject in 4 but direct object in 5? By word order—usually subject-verb-direct object.
Introduction to “Case” In Greek, grammatical function of a noun is indicated not by word order but by case endings. • a;nqrwpoj ble,pei ui`o,n) (nominative = subject) • ui`o.j ble,pei a;nqrwpon) (accusative = direct object) • ui`o.j avnqrw,pou ble,pei) (genitive = possession) Allows word order to be more flexible (not arbitrary): • ginw,skei fi,lon or fi,lon ginw,skei = He knows a friend. • fi,loj ginw,skei or ginw,skei fi,loj = A friend knows. Rule: Translate by case ending, not by word order. Learn the basic function and translation of each case as given on the following chart:
Translating Greek Nouns • Greek to English: Observe case of noun and translate accordingly. • ginw,skei fi,lon) • He knows a friend. • ginw,skei fi,loj) • A friend knows. • English to Greek: Determine grammatical function needed and choose proper case. • A friend writes. • fi,loj gra,fei) • He sees a friend. • ble,pei fi,lon) • If Greek sentence has noun subject, verb will be in third person. Don’t use “he/she/it/they” in translation.
Homework • Do declension practice worksheet. • Exercises # 29A (Greek to English): • Locate each noun and verb. • Translate the word or sentence. • Exercises # 29B (English to Greek): • Determine grammatical function of noun. • Choose appropriate case.