3rd Declension Nouns(Lesson 40) Latin I Feb. 24-28, 2014
Third Declension Nouns! • Latin has 5 declensions of nouns. • Declensions are groups of nouns which share the same endings.
3rd declension nouns • Third declension is the largest declension of nouns! • Third declension includes masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns, plus a sub-group called “i-stem nouns.” • Both masculine and feminine 3rd declension nouns use the same chart.
3rd declension nouns • Third declension nouns are identified by the –is ending in the genitive singular. pax, pacis(f.) lex, legis (f.) salus, salutis (f.) dux, ducis (m.) -is
3rd Declension Endings Singular Plural --- -ēs Nominative* Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative -is -um -i -ibus -em -ēs -e -ibus * There are several nominative endings, so they’re not listed on the chart. Whatever the first form of the word is in your vocabulary list…that’s the nominative.
Step 1 – Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the noun. Dictionary entry of a noun: pax,pacis, f. peace Often the stem Has a different spelling Than the nominative! Nominativesingular Gender Meaning Genitive singular pacis– is =pac Noun Stem
Let’s Find Stems for 3rd Declension! • dux, ducis • homo, hominis • lex, legis • miles, militis • pax, pacis • salus, salutis • duc- • homin- • leg- • milit- • pac- • salut-
Step 2: Add the case endings to the noun stem. Singular Plural Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative dux duc Note that the lovely nominative form will appear once on the chart, then disappear…like a briefly-lived bug. duc duc duc duc duc duc duc duc ibus ibus dux, ducis (m.) e es is em es i um
Your Turn! • Decline any 1 of your third declension vocabulary nouns on the whiteboard.
Nouns and Adjectives • The adjectives you have learned thus far are called “1st/2nd declension adjectives” • bonus, bona, bonum • Therefore, they do not use 3rd declension endings!
bonus, bona, bonum Nom. bonusboni Gen.bonibonorum Dat. bono bonis Acc. bonumbonos Abl. bonobonis Masculine forms use 2nd declension endings. Nom. bonabonae Gen.bonaebonarum Dat. bonaebonis Acc. bonambonas Abl. bonābonis Feminine forms use 1st declension endings. Nom. bonum bona Gen.bonibonorum Dat. bono bonis Acc. bonum bona Abl. bonobonis Neuter forms use 2nd declension neuter endings.
Nouns and Adjectives • But what if you need to use a 1st/2nd declension adjective to describe a 3rd declension noun?!?!
Nouns and Adjectives • Remember our old abbreviation G-N-C? • Nouns and adjectives agree in gender, number, and case. • They DO NOT have to agree in declension! • This means: often nouns and adjectives have endings that AGREE but AREN’T SPELLED the same way.
Nouns and Adjectives • Let’s say we want to decline the pair of words “a good law.” • lex, legis (f.)---law • bonus, BONA, bonum---good • So, a good law is a “lex bona” • Let’s see what it looks like…
Lex Bona Nom. lex bona legesbonae Gen. legisbonaelegumbonarum Dat. legibonaelegibusbonis Acc. legembonamlegesbonas Abl. legebonālegibusbonis Singular Plural
Your Turn! • Decline “arbor magna” on a single chart on the whiteboard. • Decline “dux bonus” on a single chart on the whiteboard. “Dux” is masculine so “bonus” is masculine---use 2nd declension endings on “bonus.”
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers • ducem: acc. sg. • militis: gen. sg. • regum: gen. pl. • matribus: dat./abl. pl. • arbores: nom./acc. pl. • patri: dat. sg. • lege: abl. pl. • 1. B • 2. A • 3. B • 4. C • 5. C • 6. A, B
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers • Nominative • Genitive • Dative • Accusative • Ablative • 1. B • 2. A • 3. B • 4. C • 5. C • 6. A, B
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Equimilitumsuntmagni. Equi: nom. pl. subject Militum: gen. pl. “of” The horses of the soldiers are big.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Rex reginamamat. Rex: nom. sg., subject Reginam: acc. sg., direct object The king loves the queen.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Pater agricolasdocebit. Pater: nom. Sg., subject Agricolas: acc. Pl., direct object Father will teach the farmers.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Equusducispuellamterret. Equus: nom. Sg., subject Ducis: gen. sg., “of” Puellam: acc. Sg., direct object The horse of the leader frightens the girl.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Militesgladiisnautaspugnabunt. Milites: nom. Pl., subject Gladiis: abl. Pl., “by means of” Nautas: acc. Pl., direct object The soldiers will fight the sailors by means of swords (with swords).
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Puellae arbores magnasamant. Puellae: nom. Pl., subject Arbores: acc. Pl., direct object The girls like/love the big trees.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Regina fratribuspecuniamdonabat. Regina: nom. Sg., subject Fratribus: dat. Pl, indirect object “to/for” Pecuniam: acc. Sg., direct object The queen gave/was giving money to the brothers.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Agricola militibusviamlongammonstrat. Agricola: nom. Sg., subject Militibus: dat. Pl., indirect object “to/for” Viam: acc. Sg., direct object The farmer shows the long road to the soldiers.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Cibusagricolaeregem non servabit. Cibus: nom., sg., subject Agricolae: gen. sg., “of” Regem: acc. Sg., direct object. The food of the farmer will not save the king.
3rd Declension Practice!Worksheet Answers Dux regivictoriammilitumnuntiat. Dux: nom. Sg., subject Regi: dat. Sg., indirect object “to/for” Victoriam: acc., sg., direct object Militum: gen. pl., “of” The leader announces the victory of the soldiersto the king.