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What are invasive species? PowerPoint Presentation
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What are invasive species?

What are invasive species?

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What are invasive species?

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  1. What are invasive species? • Exotic species • Naturalized species • Invasive species

  2. Exotic Species • Exotic in the vernacular means strange, unusual, unfamiliar ExoticDancer Exotic carrot

  3. Exotic Species Definition • Exotic Species • (Alien, non-indigenous, non-native ) • Introduced New Area • Outside historic geographic range • Different Continent • Different part of the same continent • Different ecosystem

  4. Different continent Distribution North & Central America House Sparrow

  5. Different Part of a Continent House Finch Introduced Long Island NY Historic Range SW USA

  6. Different Part of Continent & Different Ecosystem Rainbow Trout Native to tributaries of Pacific OceaninAsia&North America

  7. Dandelion Naturalized Species • Naturalized species: • alien (Exotic) species • establish viable populations Chicory – common along roadsides Ring-necked Pheasant

  8. Naturalized Species • How many naturalized species occur in the United States? • What percentage of Illinois’ Flowering plants are naturalized? • Total flora = 3,100 species • 26% (811 species are naturalized)

  9. Why worry about alien species? • There are about 30,000 alien species in the United States and most of them are beneficial

  10. Toby

  11. Why worry about Exotic (Alien) species? • Value of Exotic species: • Produce 98% of USA food supply • 500 billion dollars • Some exotic species become invasive

  12. Invasive Species • Federal Definition – • “Invasive species” means an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Executive Order 13112 (Feb. 3, 1999) • 0.1% percent of alien species that arrive become invasive (10 percent rule) • 10 percent establish (10%) – they are naturalized • 10 percent spread (1%) • 10 percent become invasive (0.1%)

  13. Cost of Invasive species: • Invasive species cause economic damage: • $123- $137 billion dollar annually in USA • Agricultural pests – about ¼ of agricultural GNP is lost • Costs excludes damage to natural ecosystems

  14. How do invasive species cause damage • Invasive species cause damage by: • Eliminating indigenous species • Disrupting ecosystem processes • Reducing biodiversity • Cause human health or economic problems

  15. Why are invasive species successful? • Release from enemies • Natural competitions, parasites, pathogens, predators • Increased competitive abilities (ICA) • “Vacant niches,” unutilized, or under utilized resources • Community characteristics • Species richness • Disturbance favors invading species • Native species often have no natural immunity to introduced diseases – • Dutch elm disease, • Chestnut blight

  16. Novel Native

  17. Fungi Ave. Number of Pathogen Species Viruses

  18. Examples of Invasive Species • Kudzu • Zebra mussel • Asian Carp

  19. Kudzu • Introduced from Japan • Erosion control & Forage • Rapid growth • U.S. Soil Conservation Service(1935-1942)

  20. Kudzu over grows trees in SE United States

  21. Occupies 7 million acres Kudzu Distribution in USA Illinois 16 colonies 440 acres Alaska Hawaii Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

  22. Actual size ¾ inch Zebra Mussel • Native to streams • (Ural & Volga) entering Caspian sea • Great Lakes 1988 – ballast water • June 1991 first confirmed sighting in Illinois River • How did it get into the Illinois River?

  23. Chicago River Des Plaines Calumet Slag Canal

  24. Illinois Sanitary and Ship Canal • 1800’s Chicago sewage discharge • Chicago River • Lake Michigan • Lake Michigan as a drinking water source • 1854 cholera epidemic killed 5.5% • 1860-1900 65/100,000 died annually from typhoid fever • Reversed flow of Chicago River (1900) • Sewage into Des Plaines and Illinois rivers

  25. Calumet Slag Canal After 1900

  26. Zebra mussel Impacts • Reduced or eliminated native mussels • Decimated food supply of fish • Filter out large phytoplankton • Only metabolize green algae – • Bluegreen algae (Cyanobacteria) • Abundance of zooplankton & plankton eating fish decreased • Water is clearer • Economic costs • – Clogged pipes • Attach to boats • Consumed by some ducks & fish • Not controlled

  27. Transported: bilge water and on exterior of boats

  28. Inadvertently: Foreign transport of goods Zebra mussel Asian long-horn beetle Sea lamprey into Great Lakes Asian Tiger mosquitoes Brown tree snake Dutch elm disease. Promoted by state or federal agencies (kudzu, multiflora rose, autumn olive) How do invasive species get here?