IFR REVIEW ByAvPass
Keeping current Once you obtain the Instrument Rating, your going to have to do the following to keep it current: 401.05-Within 6 months of the preceding flight, fly 6 hours of instrument time, and completed 6 IFR approaches to minimums Can be completed in a level B, C, or D simulator IFR PERIOD OF VALITITY 401.48-An instrument rating is valid for the period specified on the licence in accordance with the personnel licensing standards, where the period does not exceed 24 months. Your IFR will expire on the first day of the 25th month An IFR flight test will renew it, which can be done either in the appropriate group of aircraft or a category B, C, or D simulator
Instrument rating groups Different categories of aircraft are put into groups: Group 1:Multi-Engine airplanes Group 2:Multi-Engine airplanes with inline Engines Group 3:Single Engine aircraft Group 4:Helicopters When qualified for a specific instrument rating group, a pilot is also qualified for the next higher instrument rating group(s) as well (ie: a Group 1 IFR rated pilot is also qualified as a group 2 or 3 IFR rated pilot, but a group 2 IFR rated pilot is not qualified for Group 1 aircraft)
Ifr aircraft requirements 605.18: An aircraft intended to operate under Instrument Flight Rules must have the following equipment: All standard equipment required to fly during the day and night (if flying at night) Attitude indicator Vertical speed indicator Outside air temperature gauge A system to prevent ice build up on each airspeed indicating system (iepitot heat) A Vacuum failure warning device or power failure warning device for gyroscopic instruments An alternative static source for airspeed indicator, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator Sufficient radios for two way communication Sufficient radio navigation equipment to permit the pilot to continue the flight to their destination or alternate airport, and when in IMC conditions, fly an instrument approach
Flight plans and flight itineraries 602.71:The PIC of an aircraft shall, before commencing a flight, be familiar with the available information that is appropriate to the intended flight. 602.72: The PIC of an aircraft shall, before commencing a flight, be familiar with the available weather information that is appropriate to the intended flight.
Flight plans and flight itineraries Requirements to File a Flight Plan or Itinerary: No PIC shall operate an aircraft under Instrument Flight Rules unless an IFR flight plan has been flied Each leg of a flight requires its own flight plan, for example, if you are flying three legs, you require three individual flight plans A Flight Plan MUST be filed when crossing an international boarder, a Flight Itinerary is NOT acceptable A flight itinerary may be filed instead of a flight plan when: The flight is conducted in part or completely in uncontrolled airspace There are inadequate facilities to communicate the flight plan information to an ATC unit, FSS, or aerodrome radio station
Flight plans and flight itineraries OVERDUE AIRCRAFT: SAR will be notified if an aircraft has not filed an arrival report in the case of a: FLIGHT PLAN: Within ONE HOUR after the last reported ETA, or immediately after the specified “Search and Rescue” time put in the flight plan FLIGHT ITINERARY: Within 24 HOURS of the last reported ETA, or immediately after the specified “Search and Rescue” time put in the flight itinerary A Flight Itinerary must be filed with a responsible person, which CARs defines as: An individual who has agreed with the person who has filed a flight itinerary to ensure that the following are notified in the manner prescribed in this division, if the aircraft is overdue, namely, An air traffic control unit, FSS, or community aerodrome radio station A rescue co-ordination centre
Flight plans and flight itineraries CHANGES IN THE FLIGHT PLAN: 602.76: The PIC of an aircraft operating under an IFR flight plan must advise ATC (or responsible person in the case of a Flight Itinerary) when ever the following have been changed: Cruising Altitude or Flight Level Route of flight Destination True Airspeed: ATC must me notified if the cruising altitude TAS is in excess of +/-5% difference specified on the Flight Plan (not required on a Flight Itinerary) Mach Number: ATC must be notified if the Mach Number is in excess of +/-0.01 or more than specified on the Flight Plan When flying in controlled airspace a clearance must be obtained before commencing any of the above
Flight plans and flight itineraries ARRIVAL REPORT: 602.77: When operating under a FLIGHT PLAN, an Arrival Report must be filed no later than one hour from the last REPORTED ETA, or no later than the Search and Rescue time specified on the Flight Plan. When operating under a FLIGHT ITINERARY, an Arrival Report must be filed no later than 24 hours from the last REPORTED ETA to the responsible person or an ATC unit. An Arrival report is not required where an IFR flight is terminated at an airport where there is an ATC unit or a Flight Service Station.
Flight plans and flight itineraries NOTAM NUMBER NOTAM START TIME NOTAM END TIME NOTAM’s: It is important to know how to dissect them properly, lets look at a few Times specified in a NOTAM will always be in a YY/MM/DD/ZZZZ format (Remember Biggest to Smallest in this case) In this example, the NOTAM starts at 14:51Z on January 27, 2014 and ends at 23:59Z on February 03, 2014
Flight plans and flight itineraries NOTAM’s: TIL: Means the NOTAM will end at this exact time APRX: Means the NOTAM will end at APPROXIMETLY this time. If this time comes and goes it does NOT mean the NOTAM has ended. This NOTAM needs a canceling or replacing NOTAM
Flight plans and flight itineraries R-replacing NOTAM NOTAM’s: NOTAMR NOTAMC
Flight plans and flight itineraries IFR FUEL REQUIRMENTS: 602.88: PROPELLER DRIVEN: The PIC must carry enough fuel to fly to the destination, execute an approach and missed approach, fly to the alternate airport and execute an approach, land, and an additional 45 minutes endurance TURBO-JET DRIVEN: The PIC must carry enough fuel to fly to the destination, execute an approach and missed approach, fly to the alternate airport and execute an approach, land, and an additional 30 minutes endurance
Flight plans and flight itineraries IFR FUEL REQUIRMENTS: 602.88: Every aircraft shall carry an amount of fuel that is sufficient to provide: Taxiing and foreseeable delays prior to take off Weather conditions Foreseeable air traffic routings and traffic delays Landing at a suitable aerodrome in the event of loss of cabin pressurization or, in the case of multi-engine aircraft, failure of any engine, at the most critical point during the flight Any other foreseeable conditions that could delay the landing of the aircraft
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: TAKE-OFF IS RESTRICTED BY VISIBILITY In order to take-off from the departure airport, it has to meet specific visibility requirements. If there are several sources of reported visibility, the following will take order of precedence: 1) REPORTED RVR- If the RVR is fluctuating above and below the minimum required visibility, or if the RVR is below the specified minimum due to a localized phenomena, the next reported visibility source will be accepted: 2) REPORTED GROUND VISIBILITY at the airport 3) VISIBILITY OBSERVED BY THE PIC The standard MINIMUM take-off visibility is ½ STATUTE MILE However, each runway at each airport may have its own minimum visibility requirements, this will be found on the CAP plate
Flight planning MEASURED RVR Take-off weather requirements: RVR-Runway Visual Range: Defined as the Horizontal Visibility, in feet, from the threshold of the runway
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: RVR-Runway Visual Range: Measured by in instrument called a TRANSMISSOMETER. RVR “A”: Transmissometer located at the threshold of the runway RVR “B”: Transmissometer located at the Runway midpoint (Used for CAT II Operations) RVR “C”: Transmissometer located at the “other” End of the Runway
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: RVR-Runway Visual Range:
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: Take-off minima for individual runways are shown on the Taxi chart in the CAP In this example, Runway 03 has a take-off minimum visibility of ½ sm. Runway 21 however, has different take off minimums for different categories of aircraft.
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: When an asterisk is next to a specified runway (RWY 11, 29:*) it means there is a specific take-off procedure (headings, altitudes, and climb gradients) required in order to clear obstacles
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: If for example the aircraft is unable to perform the required departure (ie: too steep of climb gradient), or there is a visual manoeuver required, pilots must adhere to SPEC-VIS
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: The visibility required depends on the aircraft category. The following chart is used to determine the category of the aircraft based on INDICATED AIRSPEED
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: SPEC-VIS: Specified Take-Off Minimum Visibility. This is used when there is a requirement for a visual departure. Each category of aircraft (refer to chart on the previous page) has its own visibility required to take off
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: NOT ASSESED: The departure procedure has not been assessed for obstacle clearance. Therefore the PIC is responsible for all obstacle clearance associated with the departure Still in no case shall the PIC depart when the visibility is below ½ sm for aeroplanes and ¼ sm for helicopters
Flight planning Take-off weather requirements: Before taking off and completing the published take-off procedure, the PIC must ensure: The aircraft will cross the departure end of the runway at a height of at least 35 feet To maintain runway heading to at least 400 feet above aerodrome elevation before turning The aircraft can maintain a MINIMUM climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile To abide by all noise abatement procedures
Flight planning Take-off Alternate: You have established that you are able to take off with the weather being down, but what if the take-off weather minimums are lower then the landing minimums at the departure airport? You are able to take-off but not land… You need a TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE
Flight planning Take-off Alternate: When a Take-off Alternate is required, the weather at the alternate airport must meet standard alternate airport minimums The Take-off alternate must be within a certain distance of the departure airport, depending on the operation and aircraft In the case of a 2-engine airplane, with 9 seats or lessavailable for occupancy, a take off alternate must be selected within 60 minutes at the 2-engine operative speed In the case of a 2-engine airplane, with more than 9 seats available for occupancy, a take off alternate must be selected within 60 minutes at the 1-engine operative speed
Flight planning Alternate Airport: Every aircraft that is operating under an IFR flight plan is required to have an Alternate Airport that meets minimum requirements on the flight plan The Ceiling and Visibility must be sufficient enough at the Alternate Airport at the ETA When using an Alternate Airport that has a TAF, 3 words should pop out, BECMG, TEMPO, and PROB. When the ETA lands in a period of: BECMG: If the weather is forecast to DETERIORATE, it will be assumed that it will start to deteriorate at the BEGINNING of the BECMG time frame If the weather is forecast to IMPROVE, it will be assumed that it will improve at the END of the BECMG time frame TEMPO: The alternate minimums must not be below the weather forecast in the entire TEMPO time frame PROB: The weather must not be below the regular published landing minimums for the airport
Flight planning Alternate Airport: Every aircraft that is operating under an IFR flight plan is required to have an Alternate Airport that meets minimum requirements
Flight planning Alternate Airport: What does this chart mean?? First things first, AVAILABLE APPROACHES means individual runways with IFR approaches available. For example, if the airport has 1 runway with 2 approaches (ILS at each end) it only counts as 1 available approach. If there are 2 runways (2 separate pieces of asphalt) with their own individual approaches, it counts as 2 approaches available
Flight planning Alternate Airport: If a runway or approach is NOTAM’d to be closed or offline at the ETA at the alternate airport, you CAN NOT count it as an available approach
Flight planning Alternate Airport: MINIMUM WEATHER REQUIRED This is the ceiling and visibility that is required at the alternate airport at the Estimated Time of Arrival
Flight planning So what does this mean? Lets say we have an alternate airport in mind with 2 separate runways, both with an ILS. Both have published minimums of 200 feet and ½. We look at these numbers above and have to calculate what the weather has to be at the alternate airport in order to use it on the flight plan. We need both numbers above because we need to determine which value is higher. The higher value will become the minimum weather required for the alternate airport. So add the Published minimums of the LOWEST HAT, in this case the lowest is 200 feet, add the 200 feet in the chart. The sum equals 400 feet. Now do the same with visibility, ½ mile in the published approach, plus ½ mile in the chart above equals 1 mile required. So, the required weather minimums at the alternate airport at the ETA is 400 feet and 1sm visibility.
Flight planning Example #2: In this case the Alternate airport in mind only has one available precision approach. So therefore, we need either 600 feet vertically and 2 sm visibility, OR, 300 feet vertically and 1 sm visibility above the lowest HAT. Right away, we know we can’t use 600-2 because the minimums are higher on the actual approach. So we need to add the 300 feet to the 651 foot minimums, 951. now we need to add the visibility to the 1 1/2 , which sums to 2 ½.
Flight planning So the required alternate minimums have been established as 951 feet and 2 ½ sm. But have you ever read a TAF that forecasts a ceiling to be at 951 feet? So we have to round it either up or down.
Flight planning The number to remember when rounding up or down is 21. When the calculated alternate minimum ceiling is 20 or below, round down to the nearest 100 feet When the calculated alternate minimum ceiling is 21 or higher, round up to the nearest 100 feet So the required forecast minimums at our alternate airport at our ETA is… 1000 feet AGL and 2 ½ sm visibility
Flight planning EXAMPLE #3: Lets say in this example this Alternate Airport has 1 available runway with a precision approach, the highest minimum being 201 feet With one precision approach available we would use 600-2 (standard alternate minima) OR 300-1 above the lowest HAT and visibility, whichever is HIGHER So it’s either 600-2, or 501-1 ½ (300+201=501 foot ceiling and 1+1/2 = 1½ visibility) Having to use the HIGHER minimum, 600-2 would be the required minimum
Flight planning Alternate Airport: If the alternate weather requirements are either 600-2 or 800-2… These are known as STANDARD ALTERNATE MINIMA
Flight planning Alternate Airport: When Standard Alternate Minima applies, the following sliding scale is accepted: An INCREASE in 100 feet of vertical ceiling, allows for a DECREASE in ½ sm of visibility to a minimum of 1 sm
Flight planning Alternate Airport: When there is no TAF available for the Alternate Airport, a GFA can be used, as long as: There is no cloud lower than 1000 feet above the lowest HAT/HAA There are no cumulonimbus in the area Visibility is greater than 3 miles REMEMBER ALL ALTITUDES IN A GFA ARE IN ASL UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
Flight planning Alternate Airport: When using an alternate airport that is only served with a Aerodrome Advisory forecast, the ceiling must be at least 500 feet above the lowest HAT/HAA and the visibility must be at least 3 miles
Flight planning Alternate Airport With Only a GPS Approach: In order to use an Alternate Airport that only has a GPS approach available, the PIC must: Confirm that RAIM will be available at the Alternate at the ETA Ensure LNAV minima meet the Alternate Airport weather minimums Ensure that there is a published IFR approach at the original destination that is completely dependent on traditional nav aids alone
Departure procedures Standard Instrument Departure: Some airports provide what is called a Standard Instrument Departure (SID), which is basically a combination of coordinated routs, headings, altitudes etc, that must be followed after departure. There are 2 types of SID’s: RADAR VECTORED SID: Used in a RADAR environment. Aircraft will follow the published procedure and/or ATC will assist with vectors to waypoints or enroute portions of the flight. PILOT NAVIGATED SID: Pilots are responsible for navigating the published SID to the enroute transition *It’s Important to note that when required to maintain runway heading, either by a SID or ATC, DO NOT ACCOUNT FOR DRIFT, just maintain runway heading
Departure procedures Standard Instrument Departure: If ATC modifies the SID by assigning a different altitude or heading after departure, it does NOT cancel the SID
Departure procedures Wake Turbulence Separation: The following chart is based on aircraft of different weight categories departing behind each other in a RADAR environment
Departure procedures Wake Turbulence Separation: In the case of a NON-RADAR departure, ATC will provide a minimum of 2 minutes departure separation between a HEAVY aircraft and a lighter aircraft. If the lighter aircraft is expected to use more runway than the heavier aircraft, or it is doing an intersection take-off, the separation time will be increased to 3 minutes.
Departure procedures Departure from an Uncontrolled Airport: When departing from an uncontrolled airport under an IFR flight plan, the same radio communications apply as they do under VFR An ATC clearance SHOULD be obtained before taking off if in controlled airspace. You are able to depart under VISUAL conditions if for some reason the PIC is unable to either obtain a clearance on the ground or other IFR traffic is preventing you to obtain a clearance (remember only one IFR aircraft at a time is allowed at uncontrolled airports) In this case there is no alerting service provided until a clearance is obtained, so get it as soon as possible
airspace IFR FLIGHT IN CLASS A,B,C,D,E, OR F AIRSPACE: 601.05-No person shall operate an IFR aircraft in class A,B,C,D,E, OR F Special Use Restricted or Special Use Advisory controlled airspace unless the aircraft is operated in accordance with an ATC clearance.
airspace IFR FLIGHT IN DIFFERENT AIRSPACE: CLASS A: 18,000 feet to but NOT INCLUDING FL600 All aircraft subject to ATC clearances and instructions ATC provides separation to all aircraft IFR Aircraft only CLASS B: All low level airspace above 12,500 feet ASL or at and above the MEA, whichever is higher, up to but not including 18,000 feet All aircraft subject to ATC clearances and instruction