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Burn Injuries

Burn Injuries

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Burn Injuries

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  1. Burn Injuries By Donald Hudson, D.O., FACEP/ACOEP

  2. Epidemiology • Tissue injury caused by thermal, electrical, or chemical agents • Can be fatal, disfiguring, or incapacitating • ~ 1.25 million burn injuries per year • 45,000 hospitalized per year • 4500 die per year (3750 from housefires) • 3rd largest cause of accidental death

  3. Risk Factors • Fire/Combustion • Firefighter • Industrial Worker • Occupant of burning structures • Chemical Exposure • Industrial Worker • Electrical Exposure • Electrician • Electrical Power Distribution Worker

  4. Anatomy and Physiology of Skin

  5. Skin • Largest body organ. Much more than a passive organ. • Protects underlying tissues from injury • Temperature regulation • Acts as water tight seal, keeping body fluids in • Sensory organ

  6. Skin • Injuries to skin which result in loss, have problems with: • Infection • Inability to maintain normal water balance • Inability to maintain body temperature

  7. Skin • Two layers • Epidermis • Dermis • Epidermis • Outer cells are dead • Act as protection and form water tight seal

  8. Skin • Epidermis • Deeper layers divide to produce the stratum corneum and also contain pigment to protect against UV radiation • Dermis • Consists of tough, elastic connective tissue which contains specialized structures

  9. Skin • Dermis - Specialized Structures • Nerve endings • Blood vessels • Sweat glands • Oil glands - keep skin waterproof, usually discharges around hair shafts • Hair follicles - produce hair from hair root or papilla • Each follicle has a small muscle (arrectus pillorum) which can pull the hair upright and cause goose flesh

  10. Burn Injuries

  11. Burn Injuries • Potential complications • Fluid and Electrolyte loss  Hypovolemia • Hypothermia, Infection, Acidosis •  catecholamine release, vasoconstriction • Renal or hepatic failure • Formation of eschar • Complications of circumferential burn

  12. Burn Injuries • An important step in management is to determine depth and extent of damage to determine where and how the patient should be treated

  13. Types of Burn Injuries • Thermal burn • Skin injury • Inhalation injury • Chemical burn • Skin injury • Inhalation injury • Mucous membrane injury • Electrical burn • Lightning • Radiation burn

  14. Depth Classification • Superficial • Partial thickness • Full thickness

  15. Burn Classifications • 1st degree (Superficial burn) • Involves the epidermis • Characterized by reddening • Tenderness and Pain • Increased warmth • Edema may occur, but no blistering • Burn blanches under pressure • Example - sunburn • Usually heal in ~ 7 days

  16. Burn Classifications • First Degree Burn(Superficial Burn)

  17. Burn Classifications • 2nd degree • Damage extends through the epidermis and involves the dermis. • Not enough to interfere with regeneration of the epithelium • Moist, shiny appearance • Salmon pink to red color • Painful • Does not have to blister to be 2nd degree • Usually heal in ~7-21 days

  18. Burn Classifications • 2nd Degree Burn(Partial Thickness Burn)

  19. Burn Classifications • 3rd degree • Both epidermis and dermis are destroyed with burning into SQ fat • Thick, dry appearance • Pearly gray or charred black color • Painless - nerve endings are destroyed • Pain is due to intermixing of 2nd degree • May be minor bleeding • Cannot heal and require grafting

  20. Burn Classifications • 3rd Degree Burn(Full Thickness burn)

  21. Burn Injuries • Often it is not possible to predict the exact depth of a burn in the acute phase. Some 2nd degree burns will convert to 3rd when infection sets in. When in doubt call it 3rd degree.

  22. Body Surface Area Estimation • Rule of Nines • Adult • Palm Rule

  23. Body Surface Area Estimation • Rule of Nines • Peds • For each yr over 1 yoa, subtract 1% from head and add equally to legs • Palm Rule

  24. Burn Patient Severity • Factors to Consider • Depth or Classification • Body Surface area burned • Age: Adult vs Pediatric • Preexisting medical conditions • Associated Trauma • blast injury • fall injury • airway compromise • child abuse

  25. Burn Patient Severity • Patient age • Less than 2 or greater than 55 • Have increased incidence of complication • Burn configuration • Circumferential burns can cause total occlusion of circulation to an area due to edema • Restrict ventilation if encircle the chest • Burns on joint area can cause disability due to scar formation

  26. Critical Burn Criteria • 30 > 10% BSA • 20 > 30% BSA • >20% pediatric • Burns with respiratory injury • Hands, face, feet, or genitalia • Burns complicated by other trauma • Underlying health problems • Electrical and deep chemical burns

  27. Moderate Burn Criteria • 30 2-10% BSA • 20 15-30% BSA • 10-20% pediatric • Excluding hands, face, feet, or genitalia • Without complicating factors

  28. Minor Burn Criteria • 30 < 2% BSA • 20 < 15% BSA • <10% pediatric • 10 < 20% BSA

  29. Thermal Burn Injury Pathophysiology • Emergent phase • Response to pain  catecholamine release • Fluid shift phase • massive shift of fluid - intravascular  extravascular • Hypermetabolic phase •  demand for nutrients  repair tissue damage • Resolution phase • scar tissue and remodeling of tissue

  30. Thermal Burn Injury Pathophysiology • Jackson’s Thermal Wound Theory • Zone of Coagulation • area nearest burn • cell membranes rupture, clotted blood and thrombosed vessels • Zone of Stasis • area surrounding zone of coagulation • inflammation, decreased blood flow • Zone of Hyperemia • peripheral area of burn • limited inflammation, increased blood flow

  31. Thermal Burn Injury Pathophysiology • Eschar formation • Skin denaturing • hard and leathery • Skin constricts over wound • increased pressure underneath • restricts blood flow • Respiratory compromise • secondary to circumferential eschar around the thorax • Circulatory compromise • secondary to circumferential eschar around extremity

  32. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Remove to safe area, if possible • Stop the burning process • Extinguish fire - cool smoldering areas • Remove clothing and jewelry • Cut around areas where clothing is stuck to skin • Cool adherent substances (Tar, Plastic)

  33. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Pertinent History • How long ago? • What care has been given? • What burned with? • Burned in closed space? • Products of combustion present? • How long exposed? • Loss of consciousness? • Past medical history?

  34. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Airway and Breathing • Assess for potential airway involvement • soot or singing involving mouth, nose, hair, face, facial hair • coughing, black sputum • enclosed fire environment • Assist ventilations as needed • 100% oxygen via NRB if: • Moderate or critical burn • Patient unconscious • Signs of possible airway burn/inhalation injury • History of exposure to carbon monoxide or smoke

  35. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Airway and Breathing (cont) • Respiratory rates are unreliable due to toxic combustion product’s • May cause depressant effects • Be prepared to intubate early if patient has inhalation injuries • Prep early for RSI

  36. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Circulatory Status • Burns do not cause rapid onset of hypovolemic shock • If shock is present, look for other injuries • Circumferential burns may cause decreased perfusion to extremity

  37. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Other • Assess Burn Surface Area & Associated Injuries • Analgesia • Avoid topical agents except as directed by local burn centers • e.g. silvadene • Fluid Therapy

  38. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Consider Fluid Therapy for • >10% BSA 30 • >15% BSA 20 • >30-50% BSA 10 with accompanying 20 • LR using Parkland Burn Formula • 4 (2-4) cc/kg/% burn • 1/2 in first 8 hours • 1/2 over 2nd 16 hours

  39. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Fluid therapy • Objective • HR < 110/minute • Normal sensorium (awake, alert, oriented) • Urine output - 30-50 cc/hour (adult); 0.5-1 cc/kg/hr (pedi) • Resuscitation formula’s provide estimates, adjust to individual patient responses • Start through burn if necessary, upper extremities preferred • Monitor for Pulmonary Edema

  40. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Analgesia • Morphine Sulfate • 2-3 mg repeated q 10 minutes titrated to adequate ventilations and blood pressure • 0.1 mg/kg for pediatric • May require large but tolerable total doses

  41. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Treat Burn Wound • Low priority - After ABC’s and initiation of IV’s • Do not rupture blisters • Cover with sterile dressings • Moist: Controversial, limit to small areas (<10%) or limit time of application • Dry: Use for larger areas due to concern for hypothermia • Cover with burn sheet • No “Goo” on burn unless directed by burn center

  42. Assessment & Management - Thermal Injury • Transport Considerations • Appropriate Facility • Burn Center or Not • Factor to consider • Burn Patient Severity Criteria • Critical, Moderate, Minor Burn Criteria • Confounding factors • Transport resources

  43. Inhalation Injury • Anticipate respiratory problems: • Head, Face, Neck or Chest • Nasal or eyebrow hairs are singed • Hoarseness, tachypnea, drooling present • Loss of consciousness in burned area • Nasal/Oral mucosa red or dry • Soot in mouth or nose • Coughing up black sputum • In enclosed burning area (e.g. small apartment)

  44. Inhalation Injury • Burned or exposed to products of combustion in closed space • Cough present, especially if productive of carbonaceous sputum • Any patient in fire has potential of hypoxia and Carbon monoxide poisoning

  45. Inhalation Injury • Supraglottic Injury • Susceptible to injury from high temperatures • May result in immediate edema of pharynx and larynx • Brassy cough • Stridor • Hoarseness • Carbonaceous sputum • Facial burns

  46. Inhalation Injury • Subglottic Injury • Rare injury • Injury to Lung parenchyma • Usually due to superheated steam, aspiration of scalding liquid, or inhalation of toxic chemicals • May be immediate but usually delayed • Wheezing or Crackles • Productive cough • Bronchospasm

  47. Inhalation injury • Other Considerations • Toxic gas inhalation • Smoke inhalation • Carbon Monoxide poisoning • Thiocyanate poisoning • Thermal burns • Chemical burns

  48. Inhalation Injury Management • Airway, Oxygenation and Ventilation • Assess for airway edema early and often • Consider early intubation, RSI • When in doubt oxygenate and ventilate • High flow oxygen • Bronchodilators may be considered if bronchospasm present • Diuretics not appropriate for pulmonary edema

  49. Inhalation Injury Management • Circulation • Treat for Shock (rare) • IV Access • LR/NS large bore, multiple IVs • Titrate fluids to maintain systolic BP and perfusion • Avoid MAST/PASG

  50. Inhalation Injury Management • Other Considerations • Assess for other Burns and Injuries • Treat burn soft tissue injury • Treat associated inhalation injury/poisoning • Cyanide poisoning antidote kit • Positive pressure ventilation • Hyperbaric chamber (carbon monoxide poisoning) • Transport considerations • Burn Center • Hyperbaric chamber