Comment: ’Internationalisation of R&D - German viewpoint’Christopher Palmberg, Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA) • Empirically rich analysis of topical issue: position of incumbent NIS in ”new global division of labour in R&D” • Potential limitations: industries/firms are multi-technology, choice of R&D location indicator, exclusion of software almost by default • Possible interpretations/hypothesis (cf. Mariani 2002): • science-based R&D increasingly detached from production • application-oriented R&D ’stickier’ in this sense • … compare e.g. with ’chain-linked-model’ (Kline & Rosenberg 1986), which are the possible implications?
Global distribution of industrial production by regions 1750-2003 Source: Bairoch (1982), ETLA
Can incumbent NIS maintain/develop their global position in science-based R&D? • Small absolute size/scarce resources (is economies of scope enough?) – competition from BRIC countries • Complementarities between science-based and application-oriented R&D • Schumpeterian ’creative combinations’: science/application mixtures; high/low-tech mixtures; tangible/intangible mixtures • will advanced lead users of science-based R&D also relocate? • Internationalisation of science-based R&D – internationalisation of educational and public research system • Incumbent NIS at a disadvantage in terms of unfavorable age distributions?
…Finnish viewpoint as measured through patents♦ Share of foreign patents of MNEs at USPTO* • Inventor team grown in size, mainly entry of US, Germans and Swedes • Low share of foreign patents but these score higher by ’originality’ • Share highest in ICT, electronics (Nokia); lowest in mechanical • Ongoing reseach: • inward vs. outward R&D • nature of R&D • M&As vs. alliances • good or bad? *Affiliation of first inventor foreign ♦ Palmberg & Pajarinen (2004), ETLA Discussion Paper no. 916