Feasts of the LORD • “And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, these are My feasts.” (Lev 12:1-2)
Old Testament Feasts • Weekly – Sabbath (Exo 20:8-11) • Monthly - New Moons (beginnings of lunar months) (Num 10:10, 28:11-15) • Annual • Ordained by God (7 feasts) • Passover (Exo 12, Lev 23:5) • Unleavened Bread (Exo 13, Lev 23:6-8) • First Fruits (Lev 23:9-14) • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks (Lev 23:15-22) • Trumpets (Lev 23:23-25) • Atonement (Lev 16, Lev 23:26-32) • Tabernacles (Lev 23:33-36) • Ordained by Men • Dedication (1Mac 4:59, Jn 10:22) • Purim (Est 9:29-32) • Judith’s victory over Holofernes (Jud 16) • Fire of Purification by Nehemiah (2Mac 1:18) • Judas’s victory over Nicanor (1Mac 7:48-49)
The Sabbath • “Six days shall work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You shall do no work on it; it is the Sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.” (Lev 23:3) • Shabbat • Punishment for disobedient: stoning (Num 15) • The Lord rested on the seventh day (Gen 2) • All the people rested, including the slaves and also the animals (Exo 23:12) • To remember their rest from bondage (Deut 5:15) • A covenant between the people and God (Deut 5:2) • Distinguish them from the nations • Symbol of the rest of the Redemption by the Blood of Christ – and eternal rest in the Kingdom.
The Passover • Pesach (Pascha) • (Exo 12:1-28, Lev 23:5) • The Crucified Christ • Passover (Pascha) – of the angel of death • The Passover Lamb – Christ • Slain for the sins of the world • “For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us.” (1Cor 5:7) • Blood on the posts and lintel • Sign of faith in God’s promise • They ate of the lamb • Eucharist
Feast of Unleavened Bread • Chag Hamatzot • (Exo 13:3-10, Lev 23:6-8) • The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • Starts the day after the Passover and lasts for seven days • Unleavened Bread – reminder that they left Egypt in haste (Exo 12, Deut 16) • Bread of Affliction – (Deut 16) reminder of the affliction in Egypt • Leaven – symbol of sin – remove sin from among you, during and after the Passover (redemption)
Feast of Unleavened Bread • Unleavened – pure (without sin) – Symbol of Christ • Affliction – that the world endured under sin, and that Christ endured because of the sin • Follows the Passover – life of purity after redemption and Communion with God • Seven days – life of complete purity • New Testament – Leavened Bread – symbol that Christ bore the sins in His Body in order to save us.
The Seven Feasts of the Lord • Christ in the Feasts • Passover - The Crucified Christ • Unleavened Bread - The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • First Fruits - • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks - • Trumpets - • Atonement - • Tabernacles -
Feast of First-Fruits • Yom Habikkurim • (Lev 23:9-14) • The Resurrected Christ • Occurs on “the day after the (Passover) Sabbath” • The beginning of the barley harvest – before all other harvests • Confession that the Lord is the One Who gives them these gifts and He blesses the harvest • Thanksgiving • Sanctification of the first-fruits – sanctification of the whole life to God “For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; and if the root is holy, so are the branches.” • They can not eat of the harvest of the new year until the waving of first-fruits by the priest
Feast of First-Fruits • We should offer the first-fruits of all aspects of our life to God • First-fruit – symbol of the Resurrection of Christ: • “But now Christisrisen from the dead, and has become the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.” (1Cor 15:20) • The Jews were celebrating this feast on the day of Christ’s Resurrection • “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it produces much grain.” (Jn 12:28) • Christ is the First-fruit of the creation: • “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created…” (Col 1:15-16)
The Seven Feasts of the Lord • Christ in the Feasts • Passover - The Crucified Christ • Unleavened Bread - The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • First Fruits - The Resurrected Christ • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks - • Trumpets - • Atonement - • Tabernacles -
Feast of Harvest • Shavuot • (Lev 23:15-22) • Known also as Feast of Pentecost/Weeks • The Holy Spirit, the Giver of gifts • Occurs seven weeks after the feast of First-Fruits • One of only three major feasts where all the males appeared before the Tabernacle: Passover, Weeks, Tabernacles • Thanksgiving for the harvest • Commemoration of receiving the Ten Commandments – which occurred on that day
Feast of Harvest • Not reaping the corners of the field (Lev 19:9-10): • For the poor; c.f. Ruth • Not embarrass the poor • Not gathering any gleaning from the harvest • So the poor may pick it up • If nothing falls while harvesting, they would dedicate part of the harvest for the poor.
Feast of Harvest • Feast of reaping the fruit of labor after much toil: • “Those who sow in tears, Shall reap in joy. He who continually goes forth weeping, Bearing seed for sowing, Shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, Bringing his sheaves with him.” (Ps 126:5,6) • “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control.” (Gal 5:22) • After the Crucifixion (Passover), Resurrection (First-Fruit) • The gift of the Holy Spirit is for everyone, including the poor: • “ Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” (Matt 5:3)
The Seven Feasts of the Lord • Christ in the Feasts • Passover - The Crucified Christ • Unleavened Bread - The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • First Fruits - The Resurrected Christ • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks – The Holy Spirit, the Giver of gifts • Trumpets - • Atonement - • Tabernacles -
Feast of Trumpets • Rosh HaShana • (Lev 23:23-25) • Christ, Messenger of Salvation; Annunciation of the Day of the Lord • Continuous blowing upon shofar • rams' horns curved in shape and ornamented with silver at the mouthpieces. • Commemoration of the sacrifice of Isaac, where a ram was sacrificed instead of him
Feast of Trumpets • New Year Day: They gathered the fruits of the previous year, and sow the seeds of the new year • They blew the trumpet: • From sunset of the eve of the feast until sunrise of the feast • Outside the Holy, except if it falls on a Sabbath, then they blow inside the Holy • To raise their joyful prayers before God, that He may remember His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Feast of Trumpets • Beginning of Seventh month, after the long summer period: • Prelude to the Great Day of Atonement which follows • Jews prepared for it during this time with prayers, repentance and purification • Paramoun in the New Testament • Commemoration of the sound of thunder and trumpet heard when God appeared to Moses on the mountain (Exo 19:14-19)
Feast of Trumpets • Seventh month – commemoration of seventh day, God’s rest (Sabbath) • Commemoration of God’s work of Creation: • Blowing – joy of the whole creation: • “Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?” (Job 38:4,7) • Reminder of sanctifying the Sabbaths: • Sabbath day • Seventh (Sabbatical) Year • Jubilee year, the year at the end of a seven cycles of Sabbatical years
Feast of Trumpets • Blowing the trumpets symbolizes: • Annunciation of Salvation: • So it shall be in that day: The great trumpet will be blown; They will come, who are about to perish… And shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at Jerusalem. (Isa 27:13) • Call for repentance: • “Cry aloud, spare not; lift up your voice like a trumpet; tell My people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins.” (Isa 58:1) • “Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God.” (2Cor 5:20) • Beginning of the New Year (New Testament of Grace): • “The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon Me…To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD” (Isa 62:1-2, Lk 4:19) • Annunciation of the Day of the Lord: • “For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God.” (1The 4:16)
Great Day of Atonement • Yom Kippur • (Lev 16, Lev 23:26-32) • Christ, the Redeemer; The Day of the Lord • A day of great affliction • “You shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to the LORD.”
The Seven Feasts of the Lord • Christ in the Feasts • Passover - The Crucified Christ • Unleavened Bread - The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • First Fruits - The Resurrected Christ • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks – The Holy Spirit, the Giver of gifts • Trumpets - Christ, Messenger of Salvation; Annunciation of the Day of the Lord • Atonement - Christ, the Redeemer; The Day of the Lord • Tabernacles -
Feast of Tabernacles • Sukkot; Feast of Booths • (Lev 23:33-36) • Christ, Who brings His people into His Kingdom • The sukkah is reminiscent of the type of huts in which the ancient Israelites dwelt during their 40 years of wandering in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt. • Commemorate their journey in the desert where they lived in tabernacles
Feast of Tabernacles • Seven-day holiday, with the first day celebrated as a full festival with special prayer services and holiday meals. • During each day of the holiday, Jews invite seven spiritual "guests" to be with them in the sukkah, the "Seven Shepherds of Israel": • Abraham • Isaac • Jacob • Moses • Aaron • Joseph • David • As they looked forward to the coming of the Messiah
Feast of Tabernacles • They dwelt in tents, as strangers without a land • “Conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear” (1Pet 1:17) • “For here we have no continuing city, but we seek the one to come.” (Heb 13:14) • Feast full of joy • Joy of believers, and those who return to God • “Thy Kingdom come..” (Matt 6:10) • Joy of entering the Kingdom, the everlasting home: • “The king has brought me into his chambers.” (Song 1:4) • “And I say to you, make friends for yourselves by unrighteous mammon, that when you fail, they may receive you into an everlasting home.” (Lk 16:9) • “Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True… And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses.” (Rev 19:11-14)
The Seven Feasts of the Lord • Christ in the Feasts • Passover - The Crucified Christ • Unleavened Bread - The Afflicted Christ; The Burial of Christ • First Fruits - The Resurrected Christ • Harvest/Pentecost/Weeks – The Holy Spirit, the Giver of gifts • Trumpets - Christ, Messenger of Salvation; Annunciation of the Day of the Lord • Atonement - Christ, the Redeemer; The Day of the Lord • Tabernacles – Christ, Who brings His people into His Kingdom