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Alexander II

Alexander II. Russia’s Loyal Emperor from 1855-1881 By: Gazina Hussain , evelyn lee, hailey tulio , emily forster & diana tejera ---- PA3. Political. Nicholas l (Alexander’s father) while he lay on his death bed, famously told Alexander to “Hold on to everything!”

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Alexander II

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  1. Alexander II Russia’s Loyal Emperor from 1855-1881 By: GazinaHussain, evelyn lee, haileytulio, emilyforster & dianatejera---- PA3

  2. Political • Nicholas l (Alexander’s father) while he lay on his death bed, famously told Alexander to “Hold on to everything!” • For the rest of his life Alexander was committed to following what his father said and retaining Russia’s autocratic powers of the tsardom. • Alexander 1+1 was defeated in the Crimean War.

  3. Political • Modernized Russian life • Created a political climate more favorable to reform • Signed Emancipation Edict • Made a new modern Western-style system that gave freedom of expression and freedom to a fair trial to Russians

  4. Political • Under his throne, favor under the law for the wealthy and upper classes was replaced by what was supposed to be equality before the law. • A limited democracy of sorts was created in the form of town councils, its members elected by property owners and taxpayers.

  5. Economical • In Alexander 1+1’s life, he only wished to modernize Russia as a means of strengthening the autocratic tsarist state. • Also, Alexander wanted to achieve the social and economic modernization of Russia. • Under Alexander II’s throne, steel, metal and coal industries started growing.

  6. Economical • Since metal, steel and coal industries started growing, Russia developed more railroads as means of transportation. • The growth in rail lines enabled farmers to send their crops to consumers farther away, and to sell their crops at a more stable price. • Railway expansion increased Russia's ability to export grain, providing Russia with money to invest in more industrialization.

  7. Economical • In 1870, cities and towns were given powers similar to the zemstvo – power to pursue municipal economic development and to look after the welfare of its inhabitants. • So, basically the expansion had begun in the same way that it was in Western Europe and the United States, with the expansion of rail lines.

  8. Social • Some of the changes during his time was: • There was a new atmosphere of toleration and reform, as seen with relaxation of press censorship. • Important university reforms occurred which meant that universities were given much more greater autonomy in their affairs.

  9. Social • Also, lectures on European law and philosophy was allowed. • Scholars were allowed to study overseas. • New liberal professors replaced many of the conservatives that served during Nicholas I’s reign. • Also, poor students did not have to pay fees for university and their education.

  10. Social • So, by 1853, 2/3 of the students at Moscow university were exempt from education fees. • Also, the number of children attending primary school increased considerably as the zemstva played a key role in increasing the number of elementary schools. • The government’s liberal policies made university have radicalism grow in between students.

  11. Facts about Alexander II • Evidence indicates that he was an admirer of Nicholas's autocracy and bureaucratic methods. • He was the first emperor to get murdered by a member of a terrorist group. • Alexander II had traveled to locations in Russia that no one in the royal family had ever traveled to before, like Siberia.

  12. Interesting Facts • Alexander II is called the "czar liberator" because he emancipated the serfs in 1861. • Alexander spoke Russian, German, French, English, and Polish. • Unlike his father, Alexander had experience in government before he got on the throne. • At young age, he learned all about military arts, finance, and diplomacy.

  13. Pictures of Alexander II

  14. Questions • 1. What were the language(s) that Alexander the II knew? • 2. Why was Alexander II called czar liberator? • 3. How come Alexander II had experience with government before he got on throne?

  15. Answers • 1. He knew Polish, English, Russian, German & French. • 2. He signed the Emancipation Edict that freed serfs. • 3. He had military experience with government before he inherited the throne.

  16. Thanks for watching this boring but helpful presentation!!!

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