Macedonia • To the north of Greece • Probably related to Greeks and spoke similar language • Greeks saw them as “barbarians”
Philip II (lived 382-336 BC) • At age 21, Macedonian King Philip II unites Macedonia under his rule • Reorganizes the army to be more professional and effective • Soldiers were paid • Phalanx equipped with 18 foot spears
Invades Greece • The Greek city-states were weak from years of fighting amongst each other (Peloponnesian War) • The Athenian statesman Demosthenes tried to convince the Greeks to unite against Macedonia • The Greeks didn’t unite until it was too late
Battle of Chaeronea • Athens and Thebes lead a united Greek army to confront Philip at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC • Although outnumbered, the Macedonians win • Philip’s 18 year old son, Alexander proves himself a capable commander during the battle • Greece will be ruled by foreigners until the 1800’s AD
How did he control mountainous Greece? • Philip installed garrisons of troops in most Greek cities • He also made alliances with the Greek city-states • He planned to use these Greeks’ armies and navies in his invasion of Persia
Alexander becomes King • In 336 BC, Philip is assassinated and Alexander becomes king at age 20 • He quickly consolidated power
Alexander invades Persia • In 334 BC he crossed into Asia Minor to conquer Persia • Alexander won battles throughout Asia Minor and Mesopotamia • In fact, Alexander the Great never lost a battle!
Alexander in Egypt Alexander was welcomed as a liberator in Egypt. They even crowned him pharaoh, a title future Macedonia rulers used in Egypt
Alexander’s Successors • Alexander died at age 32 in Babylon • He left no legitimate heir. • Empire divided amonghis generals
Ptolemy • Among the most famous of Alexander’s successors was Ptolemy • He set up the Ptolemaic pharaoh dynasty in Egypt. • Among his decedents, and the last Ptolemaic king in Egypt was Cleopatra VII.
Hellenistic Culture • One of the lasting impacts of Alexander’s conquests was the spread of Greek culture to Persia, India, and Egypt • This blended culture is called Hellenistic. • Greeks moved into the Hellenistic kingdoms and built cities, further spreading Greek influence. • The Hellenistic kingdoms would continue untl they were conquered by Rome in the 1st century BC (100’s BC)
Library at Alexandria • One of Alexanria’s most famous creations was a library that held over 500,000 scrolls • The library was a research institution • Many great thinkers of the time worked there including Archimedes and Euclid