Advanced Radioand Radar Part 8 Types of Radar
Introduction We have already looked at Precision Approach Radar, Instrument Landing Systems and Digital Resolution Direction Finding. We will now look more closely at a variety of other of equipment used in the RAF, to see how and where they are used.
Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) A Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) beacon operates as a transponder by providing regular transmissions of bearing information. The beacon identity and range, is available within 200 miles. One TACAN can give accurate bearing, distance and identification information, to 100 aircraft simultaneously.
Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) Distance Interrogation Signals (DIS) are sent to the beacon. The ground installation contains a transmitter/receiver and an antenna array, which immediately re-transmits back to the aircraft. Cockpit instruments indicate the range and bearing of the beacon from the aircraft, calculated by the time taken between transmission and reception.
Airfield Communications System Mascot Minicommswas established as a system of communication to give controllers access to both radio and landline communications. Mascot Minicommsis the interface between many different communications systems and enables ATC controllers to "patch" together different support agencies. For example, in the event of an emergency, a pilot using the aircraft’s radio, can talk directly to a doctor using a telephone in a hospital.
STCICS The Strike Command Integrated Communications System provides specific services to its ‘users’ including: a. Scheduled broadcasts giving: Meteorological information. Airfield states (i.e. either “open” or “closed”). b. Flight watch – the initial radio contact, for aircraft that are entering UK airspace. c. Message switching and relay.
Defence Communications Network The DCN is a tri-service common network for communications. The types of information carried on the DCN are; operational, meteorological and administrative. This network is a modern communications system and uses computers to encrypt messages, so if they should be intercepted they are unreadable without the code. The DCN is similar to the civilian telex system, it is worldwide and uses HF radio, long-distance cables and satellites.
UK Air Defence Ground Environment UKADGE is a network of radars (both fixed and mobile) that cover the whole of the UK and its airspace. Land radar, ships and AEW aircraft, all input information to the system that provides a large scale picture of the UK’s airspace. The control centre then has information needed to make a judgement of any threat and how to deal with it. UKADGE is one of the worlds most modern data processing & communication systems.
Fixed Telecommunications System The RAF FTS is important because it supports UKADGE in the defence of UK airspace. If a target is detected, a central control decides action to be taken. The RAF FTS ensures good communications between all agencies and authorities. The system provides for 3 areas: a. Voice – person to person (either secure or not) b. Recorded messages – written orders or signals (achieved via DCN - Defence Communications Network). c. Data – transfer of data on dedicated lines.
Fixed Telecommunications System The RAF FTS consists of – Boxer a network of Service-owned lines and information links that carry information all round the country. It includes fibre optic, microwave and satellite links. Uniter provides the switching and terminal equipment which allows the user to communicate information to a receiver.
Check of Understanding What does TACAN stand for? Tactical Air Navigation Tactical Communications Network Technical Communications Navigation Terminal Approach Navigation
Check of Understanding A pilot receives distance, bearing and which other information from TACAN? Altitude Details Height Information Beacon Identification Azimuth Location
Check of Understanding A pilot receives distance, beacon identification and which other information from TACAN? Bearing Height Azimuth Elevation
Check of Understanding What does STCIC stand for? Strike Command Integrated Communications System Support Command Integrated Communications System Strike Command Internal Communications System Support Command Internal Communications System
Check of Understanding What is the system that can link an ordinary telephone to an aircraft’s radio? Mascot Minicomms Boxer RAF FTS Uniter
Check of Understanding What information does STCIC supply? Scheduled broadcasts, flight watch & message switching Unscheduled broadcasts, flight watch & message switching Scheduled broadcasts, flight watch & message relays Unscheduled broadcasts, flight watch & message relays
Check of Understanding What does DCN stand for? Data Communications Network Data Control Network Defence Communications Network Defence Control Network
Check of Understanding What types of information is carried on the DCN ? Operational, Meteorological and Administrative. Meteorological Information and Airfield States Bearing, Distance and Identification Information Transfer of Data on Dedicated Lines.
Check of Understanding What is the air defence system used in the UK called? UK Defence of Air & Ground Environment Air Defence Ground Environment (UK) UK Air Defence Ground Environment Air Defence (UK) Ground Environment
Check of Understanding How does UKADGE achieve its aim? By only using airborne radars to cover UK airspace By only using mobile radars to cover UK airspace By only using fixed radars to cover UK airspace By using fixed & mobile radars to cover UK airspace
Check of Understanding What three areas does the RAF FTS cover? Video, recorded message and data Voice, recorded data and faxes Voice, recorded messages and data Voice, records and data
Check of Understanding The data links on the RAF FTS include . . . Microwave, HF radio & satellite HF radio, fibre optic & satellite Fibre optic, microwave & satellite HF radio, radar & satellite
Check of Understanding What are the two RAF FTS sub-systems called? Boxer & United Baxter & United Boxer and Uniter Baxter & Uniter
Advanced Radioand Radar End of Presentation