ImperialisminLATIN AMERICA Michelle Lee, Alice Ahn, Beatrice Park
Background Information~Independence and the economical dependency~ • For a long time Latin America was colonized by Europeans. Latin American countries fought for independence between the late 1700’s to the mid 1800’s. • After it became independent, trading in Latin America after the early 19th century was no longer restricted. Britain and the United States were the major trade partners. • Latin America exported natural resources and imported manufactured products; Latin America, not industrialized, depended on other countries for factory-made goods. • Latin America had to borrow money for their trading facilities from foreign countries: Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. The foreign countries took over the industries when Latin American countries were unable to clear off debts.
IMPERIALISM OF THE UNITED STATES I’ll “help” you! ..really? • THE UNITED STATES GAIN IMPERIAL POWER! • The United States used various methods to economically and politically control Latin America. Such as… WAIT!! Noooooo…
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) • Cuba, colony of Spain, called for a revolution in 1868, but gave up in 1878. The US interfered and supported the second fight that started in 1895: The Spanish-American War started. The Spanish army, weakened from the long battles, soon surrendered. • To the United States, this gave imperial power over Latin America. The other colonies of Spain also fell into the hands of the US. • To Cuba, the US was abominable; the US had prevented their total freedom. The Cubans also hated the military government established by the US. You should thank me! :(
THE PANAMA CANAL (1903) • Commerce in America faced obstacles, due to the harsh land/sea travel. The US decided to dig a canal across Central America, Panama. Panama was colonized by Colombia; Colombia claimed for a huge amount of payment for the canal. • The US stirred up Panama for a revolution and supported their battle. After their victory, Panama provided a ten-mile wide zone to the US for the canal. • To the United States, the canal provided a easy pathway for commerce. The US also collected the tollgate for passing the Panama Canal. The US helped Panama to build the canal without paying the payment, which outnumbered $10 million. • To Panama, the US gave them the opportunity and help for independence. Though they had to give a huge amount of land and the right to collect tollgate fee.
THE MONROE DOCTRINE (1823) AND THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY(1904)~The excuses for interference~ • President Monroe proposed that the American continents will no longer let European countries to colonize them. • Adding to the Monroe Doctrine, President Roosevelt proposed the Roosevelt Corollary that the United States will be “an international police power”. • This announcement showed the Imperialistic intentions of the US. It was actually saying that the Europeans can’t interfere but the United States can, which is ironic. • To the United States, this was a specious pretence to justify their interference to Latin America and prevent European invasion and rivalry; which would lead to their economical profit since Europe can’t restrict commerce in Latin America. The US “protected” Latin America for peace Later, the US even sent armies to Latin America to “help”. • To the LatinAmericancountries, this meant that they were only entitled independent countries, but actually controlled and interfered by the US. They showed hatred to the US troop that actually came to take control. They protested for true freedom.
SUMMARY~USA -THE COMMANDING IMPERIAL POWER IN LATIN AMERICA~ On the exterior, Latin American countries gained independence from Europe. As this was happening, the United States saw an opportunity to gain power in the region. America started to support the revolutions so that it could gain “imperial” power through spheres of influence without any competition.Since Europe did not restrict trade in Latin America anymore, the US was able to make contracts advantageous for themselves, send troops to control Latin America, and build the Panama canal. Consequences • The Panama Canal made commerce convenient, and trading in Latin America become more active. The United States gave huge economical influence; this economical imperialism is still continued. • Cuba and Panama became independent from Europe by the help of the US but they were not able to have true freedom and had to face the interference of the US. The US profited from Latin American countries, for an example the tollgate fee for the Panama Canal. • The US sent armies and establish governments to take control; the hatred of the Latin Americans grew and lead to rebellions. Even these days, politicians that are against the American Imperialism and neoliberalism are supported by a lot of Latin Americans who think that they are the victims of the the US domination; such as Hugo Rafael Chavez Frias, the president of Venezuela. … ^_^
Bibliography • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia I. Shabaka. Modern World History. Vol. 1., Illinois / Boston / Dallas: McDougal Littell, 2003. 1-r627. Evanston • Panama - Panama Canal. 2007. YAHOO! KIDS. Yahoo. 17 Jan. 2008 http://kids.yahoo.com/directory/Around-the-World/Countries/Panama/Panama-Canal • 1-WORLD MAPS ONLINE. Seattle and Washington. 17 Jan. 2008 <http://www.worldmapsonline.com/UnivHist/Univ-World-History-Maps.htm>. • Crow, Cody. "The Spanish American War and Race." 16 Jan. 2008 http://www3.eou.edu/hist06/Race.html • Jang, Haeng-Hoon. "남미좌파반미(反美) 선풍 Anti-American Left-Wingers Create Sensation." He Naeil News 26 Jan. 2006. 17 Jan. 2008 <http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=086&aid=0000031519>.