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Basic Concepts of Training Theory

Basic Concepts of Training Theory. Chapter 1. Training. Involves strength and speed and all aspects Comprehensive Adaptation - adjustment of an organism to its environment Adaptation is ever changing Immediate vs. delayed effects

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Basic Concepts of Training Theory

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  1. Basic Concepts of Training Theory Chapter 1

  2. Training • Involves strength and speed and all aspects • Comprehensive • Adaptation - adjustment of an organism to its environment • Adaptation is ever changing • Immediate vs. delayed effects • Training should induce specific adaptations to improve sports performance (SAID principle)

  3. Adaptation Process • Four features: • Overload • Accommodation • Specificity • Individualization • These are of primary importance for sport training

  4. 1. Overload (pg 4) • Must be above the habitual level • Increase intensity or volume (effort) • Add new drills (variability) • Load must be manipulated carefully • PRE-Progressive resistance exercise

  5. Figure 1.1

  6. 2. Accommodation • Same exercises over long time • Performance gains decrease • Prolonged stimulus • Principle of diminishing returns (response) • Training long periods may show accommodation (gain decreases) • Sport specificity (variable vs. stable?)

  7. Figure 1.2

  8. 3. Specificity • Transfer of training results • From exercise to sport • From exercise to exercise • Carryover effect • Training age?

  9. Figure 1.3

  10. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (Universal Gravitation)

  11. 4. Individualization • Everyone is different • Responders and non-responders • Each program must be individualized • Don’t use others programs • Pros are pros and we’re not!

  12. Generalized Theories of Training • Overall programs and not specific • Serve as a model for training • Used for planning programs • They are simple and practical

  13. One-factor Theory (Supercompensation) • Uses a depletion model • Accounts for athletic preparedness (how much) • Muscle glycogen depletion? • In Restoration the level returns to normal • Supercompensationis the increase over normal • Rest is the forgotten variable (FIVR)

  14. Figure 1.4

  15. Hans Selye, MD, PhD 1907-1982

  16. Rest Intervals • Optimal rest! • Subsequent workouts coincide with supercompensation • Timing is important • The timing of the event may be more important than the event itself

  17. Figure 1.5 • (a) Too little • (b) Just right • (c) Too much

  18. Overloading Microcycle • Several short rest periods followed by long rest • Supercompensation is enhanced • Nutrition must also be included • Carbohydrate loading for supercompensation • Glycogen stores are enhanced but ATP appears unaffected

  19. Figure 1.6

  20. Two-Factor Theory (fitness-fatigue theory) • Preparedness is both slow and fast changing • Physical Fitness is slow changing • Performance is fast changing • Fatigue • Overstress • Sickness • Therefore, following a workout: • Fitness is enhanced • Performance is diminished (fatigue)

  21. Preparedness • Following a workout • Preparedness improves due to fitness gain • Preparedness decreases due to fatigue • Summation of + and – equals outcome • Fitness is moderate but long lasting • Fatigue is greater but short lasting

  22. Figure 1.7

  23. Training Models • An organized process rather than chaos • Peaking is reaching your max • Tapering is rest • Reduce the number of sessions or the load (effort) • One-factor uses regular intervals • Rest intervals are set • Two-factor uses rest to determine next workout • Next workout should come after negative effects leave

  24. Training Effects • Acute – during exercise • Immediate – right after exercise • Cumulative – after continued exercise • Delayed (chronic) – after a given time frame • Partial – single exercise training • Residual – retention after adaptation

  25. Induce specific adaptations Increase athletic performance Strength must improve Training load must be above normal (effort) Adaptation: Overload Specific Vary over time Individualized Simple training models Supercompensation One-factor Restoration and increase Two-factor Fitness and preparedness Training effects Acute to residual Summary

  26. Next Class • Lab tonight on torque & power/velocity curve • Single leg velocity spectrum (60, 180, 300, 400, 500) • Homework graphs and explanation • Homework on AV Hill article • Concentrate on pgs 177-178. • Next week Chapter 2 and lab

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