Positive Degree Adjectives 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives fidus fida fidum - faithful miser misera miserum - poor, wretched pulcher pulchra pulchrum - beautiful 3rd Declension Adjectives acer acris acre - sharp, fierce (three termination) brevis breve - short (two termination) potens potentis - powerful (one termination)
Comparative Degree Adjectives (Page 235) English = more adjective, ______-er, rather ________, too______ English Positive Degree:short English Comparative Degree:shorter, more short, rather short, too short Latin = Positive Degree Stem + ior (mas. & fem) ius (neu.) genitive: ioris All Latin Comparative Degree Adjectives are declined as two termination third declension adjectives with regular third declension endings (not “i” stem endings).
Positive Degree fidus fida fidumfaithful Comparative Degree fidior fidiusmore faithful Mas. & Fem. Neu. Nom. fidior fidius Gen. fidioris fidioris Dat. fidiori fidiori Acc. fidiorem fidius Abl. fidiore fidiore Nom. fidiores fidiora Gen. fidiorum fidiorum Dat. fidioribus fidioribus Acc. fidiores fidiora Abl. fidioribus fidioribus more faithful
Positive Degreebrevis breveshort Comparative Degreebrevior breviusshorter Mas. & Fem. Neu. Nom. brevior brevius Gen. brevioris brevioris Dat. breviori breviori Acc. breviorem brevius Abl. breviore breviore Nom. breviores breviora Gen. breviorum breviorum Dat. brevioribus brevioribus Acc. breviores breviora Abl. brevioribus brevioribus shorter
Comparison with the Comparative Degree (Page 236) 1. Comparison withquam (conjunction = than) In English we use the conjunction than in comparisons; and the two persons, places, or things being compared are in the same case. The same rule is true in Latin with the adverb quam (than). Honor mihi carior est quam vita. Honor is dearer to me than life. 2. Ablative of Comparison In Latin quam is sometimes omitted. The word being compared, which follows than in English, is placed in the ablative case in Latin. This use is called the Ablative of Comparison. This ablative may be used only when the persons, places, or things being compared would be in the nominative or accusative case if quam were used. Honor mihi carior est vita. Honor is dearer to me than life.