Location of soilsin Poland Soils in Limanowa and its borough Types of soils
The map of soils – types of soils 1. brown lixiviated and drown acidic2. podsol and pseudopodsol 3. alluvial soils
Soils Types of soils Initial soils and weakly formed soils Rendzina Humus Brown soils Lessives Podsol soils The parcipation of soils types in the whole country area Black soils Alluvial soils Marshy soils Anthropogenic soils Underwater soils All remaining mark as in the legend of the map
Thebrownsoil Thebrownsoil profile:a) humus levelb) brownlevelc) a matrixIn Poland, 20 percent of its areaconsists of brown soil and it is divided into: - brown characteristic soil - brown lixiviated soils - brown acid soils - brown podsolic soils - dun soils Brown soils have been created from different matrixes rich in calcium because of deciduous or mixed forests impact in moderate-humid climate. The process of going brown has the influence on its creation. They do not undergo acidity due to the intensive biological cycle of the basic elements that is characteristic of multi-species broadleaved forests. The brown colour of the soil comes from iron compounds and the brown humus compounds which cover the soil grains in the form of thin membrane.
Thebrownsoil Brown soils in the lowlands and uplands are in a considerable percentage (about 26%) used for fieldand garden crops. They usually display higher value in use than podsolic soils which can be found in the similar climatic conditions and have developed from the same formations. The value in use is boosted by the favorable reaction (mildly acid or neutral), usually good structure and the presence of alkaline components. The brown soils provide a good environment for the forests. The acid brown soils appear mainly at the mountain terrain and near the rocks which are poor in calcium carbonate(e.g. sands). Usually, we can find them under forests or permanent grassland because their usability for arable farming is rather low. Soils are extremely important elements of geographical environment, constituting the product and at the same time the appropriate basis for the world’s development. There are many factors influencing the characteristic of the soil, like the type of climate, the surface layout, the irrigation and most of all, organic world (including the man). Among the mentioned factors the most significant is the biosphere, especially the floral world. Soils in Poland started their forming just after the withdrawal of the glaciers. The oldest types were tundra soils which were the first stage of soil genesis process. In Poland the most common are podsols and brown soils, humus soil constitutes only 1% of the territory and in the estuaries of valleys we can find alluvial soil.
Thepodsolicsoil The podsolic soil profile a)forest bedding layer b)eluvial layer c) iluvial layer d) a matrix Podzols- poor soils of a soil group developed in sands which are characterised by high acidity and lowhumus content. They hold little moisture. In Poland, they account for about 25% of the county's totalarea. Since podzols are poor in mineral nutrients, most of them are under pine forests.
Thepodsolicsoil The characteristic feature of the podsolic soil is the occurrence in their profile, the layer of podsolic processes .The layer is formed due to the leaching of aluminium, iron (ferric),manganese compounds in the acid environment, which is generated by the decomposing coniferous forest bedding layer. After their leaching, only insoluble silica layer of white colour remains. Metal compounds accumulate in a deeper leaching layer, which is called orstein or hardpan due to its rubiginous colour. Typical bleached soils are not fertile as an agricultural area. The improvement of agriculture on such soils is not only difficult but also requires sophisticated agricultural procedures, especially fertilization. The most reasonable way to manage light soils is their forestation.