Chapter 7 “The Road to Revolution”
Roots of the Revolution • The American Revolution began when the first colonists set foot on America. • Distance Weakens authority; great distance weakens authority greatly. • Sailing across the Atlantic in took 6 to 8 weeks • Colonists felt physically and spiritually separated from Europe. 1607 First Voyage to Jamestown .
The Mercantile Theory • A country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. • To amass gold and silver, a country had to export more than it imported. • If the mother country lacked natural resources, she must colonize in order to get them. • Colonies could supply natural resources and provide a guaranteed market for exports
Navigation Acts • Passed to help enforce mercantilism • The Navigation Laws restricted commerce to and from the colonies to English vessels. • European goods consigned to America had to land first in England, where custom duties could be collected. • Gold and silver was constantly draining out of America because they had no currency
The Merits of Mercantilism • London Paid liberal bounties to those colonials who produced ships’ parts and ships’ stores. • Tobacco planters could only ship to Britain but they maintained a strong monopoly. • Enjoyed rights of an Englishman and unusual opportunities of self-government. • They were protected by the strongest army and navy in the world • Because of salutary neglect the Navigation Acts were rarely enforced.
The Menace of Mercantilism • Britain began to enforce its mercantilist policies vigorously after 1763. (end of salutary neglect) • Americans couldn’t buy, sell, ship, or manufacture under the favorable conditions to them. • Colonist felt their economic initiative was stifled.
Sugar Act • First law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies. • 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines.
Stamp Act • After the French and Indian War Great Britain had a huge debt. • Planned to ask the colonist to defray one-third the cost of maintaining a garrison of 10,000 redcoats in America. • The Stamp Act mandated the use of stamped paper of the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. • Stamps were required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents.
George Grenville • He became notorious as First Lord of the Treasury when he established colonial trade regulations and taxation policies which alienated the colonists. He set up these policies through two sets of legislation, the Revenue Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765, as well as supplementary reinforcement of regulations to increase the effectiveness of revenue collection. His view of colonial taxation was in line with government discussions from 1762, which indicated Britain's belief that the colonists should bear part of the expense for the defense forces that would need to be maintained in the Americas after the French and Indian War.
George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765 1. Sugar Act - 1764 2. Currency Act - 1764 3. Quartering Act - 1765 4. Stamp Act - 1765
This engraving, Resistance to the Stamp Act, depicts an angry Boston crowd burning a pile of stamps in resistance of the Stamp Act of 1765. It is noteworthy that the artist included women and an African-American among the protesters.
Uproar Created from Stamp Act • Anger because it was an internal tax – tax on goods made within America • “No taxation without representation.” • Creation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Stamp Act Congress
“No Taxation without Representation” • Americans held to the view of actual representation, meaning that in order to be taxed by Parliament, the Americans rightly should have actual legislators seated and voting in London. • The British, on the other hand, supported the concept of virtual representation, which was based on the belief that a Member of Parliament virtually represented every person in the empire.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Samuel Adams and Paul Revere headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts. The Sons there also organized demonstrations, enforced boycotts and occasionally resorted to violence to advance their agenda. Similar groups were later formed in the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia. • Membership in the Sons was largely middle class with more upper-class representation than lower.
Stamp Act Congress • 27 delegates from 9 different colonies attended a meeting in New York. • First official colonial unity • The delegates approved a 14-point Declaration of Rights and Grievances, formulated largely by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. • Organized boycotts and non-importation agreements and hurt the British so much that they repealed the Stamp Act. • Passed the Declaratory Act in its place
Declaratory Act • an act passed by the British Parliament after repeal of the Stamp Act. The act stated that the king and Parliament had the right and power to make laws that were binding on the colonies "in all cases whatsoever," even though American colonists were unrepresented in Parliament.
Quartering Act • In March 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act to address the practical concerns of such a troop deployment. Under the terms of this legislation, each colonial assembly was directed to provide for the basic needs of soldiers stationed within its borders. Specified items included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider and candles. This law was expanded in 1766 and required the assemblies to billet soldiers in taverns and unoccupied houses. • New York refused and Great Britain suspended their colonial assembly
The Townshend Acts • Parliament passed a tax law that was clearly external in nature, on paint, paper, glass, lead and tea imported into the colonies. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer
Currency Act • The Currency Act of 1764 was one of the many ways in which the British Parliament tried to control the American colonies. This act prohibited the colonies from printing their own currency bills, and required them to use the system of the pound sterling instead.
Boston Massacre • On the evening of March 5, 1770, a crowd of about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing some ten Redcoats • Without orders but heavily provoked, they opened fire, wounding or killing eleven “innocent” citizens, including Crispus Attucks, the “leader” of the mob.
Paul Revere’s Engraving • Paul Revere's famous engraving of the Boston Massacre. Interestingly, Crispus Attics, the black man who provoked the riot, is not portrayed.
Tea Act • The Tea Act, passed by Parliament in May of 1773, would launch the final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. • The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes • It was designed to prop up the East India Company which was floundering financially and burdened • This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price. • The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would also have undercut the business of local merchants.
Boston Tea Party • On the evening of December 16th,1773 thousands of Bostonians and farmers from the surrounding countryside packed into the Old South Meeting house to hear Samuel Adams. Adams denounced the Governor for denying clearance for vessels wishing to leave with tea still on board. After his speech the crowd headed for the waterfront. From the crowd, 50 individuals emerged dressed as Indians. They boarded three vessels docked in the harbor and threw 90,000 pounds of tea overboard.
Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party by Nathaniel Currier
Committees of Correspondence • The colonies, in order to spread propaganda and keep the rebellious moods, set up committees of correspondence; the first was started by Samuel Adams. Samuel Adams
Intolerable Acts • Punishment for the Boston Tea Party • Known as the Coercive Acts in Great Britain • The Boston Port Act • The charter of Massachusetts was revoked • Restrictions put on town meetings • British officials accused of crimes would be charged in Great Britain
The Quebec Act • The administrative boundaries of Quebec were extended south to the Ohio and west to the Mississippi river. • Recognition was also given to the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec • The Quebec Act was not part of Lord North’s punitive program, but many Americans missed the distinction and regarded the law as simply another "Intolerable Act."
1st Continental Congress • Most memorable response to the Intolerable Acts • 55 delegates from 12 colonies (all except Georgia) attended a meeting in Philadelphia to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. • Deliberated for seven weeks, from September to October of 1774
Accomplishments of 1st Continental Congress • Drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to King George III • Created The Association, a complete boycott of British goods • Non importation • Non exportation • Non consumption
Carpenter’s Hall, Philadelphia Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia
Lexington and Concord • In April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops 16 miles to nearby Lexington and Concord to seize supplies and to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. • Word of the British departure from Boston was quickly spread by Paul Revere in his famous ride, and by the time the British reached the village green at Lexington
“The Shot Heard Round the World” • At Lexington, the British found 70 Minutemen waiting for them under the command of Capt. John Parker . • A Shot was fired and the American Revolution was begun. The British then fired upon the Minutemen, killing 8 and wounding 10. The British suffered 1 wounded. • The British continued on to Concord and were defeated by the Minutemen.
The Old North Bridge over the Concord River, where the"shot was fired that was heard around the world."
British Advantages • Britain had a population advantage: 7.5 million people to America’s 2 million, • Superior naval power • Great wealth. • 30,000 German mercenary soldiers (Hessians) • America’s lack of unity
American Advantages • Need only hold off the British to win war • Home field advantage • Britain had to control a vast amount of territory to win • Americans had great leaders like George Washington and Ben Franklin. • French aid • The Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in fighting for a just cause.