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Chapter 18 Classification

Chapter 18 Classification

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Chapter 18 Classification

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  1. Chapter 18Classification Organization and naming systems based on morphology and genetics Humans have a tendency to see commonalities and differences, clustering images by appearance.

  2. Aristotelian classification Life Plant Animal Herb Shrub Tree Aristotle grouped organisms based on appearance and abilities.

  3. Why Classify? • To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner. • To avoid the confusion caused by regional common names. Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis )

  4. Taxonomy • the science of classification • Uses Latin…descriptive, universal, “dead” language that never changes • Uses binomial nomenclature • Two word naming system of Genus & species = scientific name • Uses hierarchy of categories from general to specific

  5. Common names • Many people refer to organisms by common names rather than scientific names. • Be careful that common names do not always reflect the biology of the organism. • Example: starfish are not “fish”

  6. Comparing related animals • Lynx rufus, lynx • Panthera concolor, mountain lion • Lynx canadensis, bobcat • Which two are more related? How do you know? Lynx Bobcat Mountain lion

  7. Dichotomous key: system to identify organisms and their scientific names • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. • Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.

  8. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) • Created a classification system with seven hierarchical levels • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • species

  9. Human classification: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo species sapiens

  10. Giant panda Abert squirrel Coral snake Grizzly bear Black bear Red fox KINGDOM Animalia Sea star PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos

  11. Classification of Human and Chimp

  12. Kingdom…Phylum…Class…Order…Family… Genus species…(variety) or (breed)

  13. Phylogeny • Studying the evolutionary history and relationshipsof organisms

  14. Cladograms • Making a Family Tree • Represent evolutionary relationships, phylogeny, and not just physical appearances

  15. Cladograms • Cladistics: a phylogenic study that assumes how groups of organisms diverged and evolved Allosaurus Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Sinornis Theropods Flight feathers; arms as long as legs 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Light bones

  16. Traditional classification vs. Cladograms Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Crab Limpet Limpet Barnacle Barnacle Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM BASED ON DERIVED CHARACTERS

  17. Current six-kingdom classification • Archaebacteria: prokaryotic • Eubacteria: prokaryotic • Protists: eukaryotic • Fungi: eukaryotic • Plants: eukaryotic • Animals: eukaryotic

  18. Modern classification systems include the three-domain system which includes the 6 kingdom system. • Just a few years ago, all bacteria and some protists were labeled Monera.

  19. Three Domain System DOMAIN EUKARYA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN BACTERIA Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

  20. Key Characteristics of Domains and Kingdoms Classification of Living Things DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Eukarya Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals

  21. Pro Uni both Pro Uni both Eu most uni both Eu most multi hetero Eu multi auto Eu multi hetero

  22. Archaebacteria overview • prokaryotic • Most live in extreme environments such as swamps, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and seawater evaporating ponds. • Most do not use oxygen to respire. • Examples: Thermophiles,Halophiles, Methanogens

  23. Eubacteria overview • prokaryotic • very strong cell walls • a less complex genetic makeup than found in archaebacteria or eukaryotes • diverse habitat • Examples: Strep, Lacto-bacillus, E. coli

  24. Protist overview • diverse species that share some characteristics. • eukaryote • lacks complex organ systems • lives in moist environments • diverse metabolism

  25. Protozoans: animal-like protists • Heterotroph: consume organic matter • Unicellular • Examples: Amoeba, paramecia

  26. Algae: plant-like protists • Autotroph: uses light to make sugars through photosynthesis • Lack roots, stems, and leaves • Examples: algae, kelp, sea-weed

  27. Fungus-like protists • Decompose dead matter • Motility during some stage of life cycle • No chitin in cell walls • Examples: Slime-mold, powdery mildew

  28. Fungi overview • Eukaryotic • Decomposes matter by absorbing materials • Multicellular or unicellular • Examples: bread mold, mushrooms, athletes foot, ring worm

  29. Plant overview • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Photosynthetic: produce oxygen • Immobile, sessile • Cell walls • Examples: fruit, ferns, mosses, trees, grasses

  30. Animal overview • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Mostly mobile • Lack cell walls • Diverse habitats • Examples: lions, tigers & bears, oh my!

  31. Nutritional types Auto(photo) Hetero(absorb) Hetero(ingest) Plantae Fungi Animalia (Seaweeds) Multi Uni Protista Eu Pro Bacteria Evolution and the 6 Kingdoms

  32. Pro Uni both Pro Uni both Eu most uni both Eu most multi hetero Eu multi auto Eu multi hetero

  33. Classification systems video Click on image to play video.

  34. Panthera leo? (1) Click on image to play video.

  35. Panthera leo? (2) Click on image to play video.