China’s Policy Responses on Ageing Du Peng Institute of Gerontology, Renmin University of China
Outline • Population ageing in China • Policy response • Country experience and key mechanisms
By the end of 2012 194 million(60+), 14.3% 113 million(65+), 9.3% • Pensioners: 200 million
Projection of long term care needs Number in 10,000 Female Male Year
Key challenges for China • How to slow down the ageing process • How to protect the rights of the elderly • How to provide the care services
II. Most critical national policies • Changing the Family Planning Policy TFR now is 1.6 Aim: keep the TFR around 1.8 avoid too low or too high fertility Policy: one child couple to have 2 children all couples to have 2 children
Protecting the right • Revision of the Law on Protecting the Rights and Benefits of Older Persons in 2012 • The law took into effect in 1997, after the 15 years practice and the socioeconomic development, it has to be revised to meet the changing social needs, such as to share the responsibility of elderly support between family members and government, to regulate the institutional care and community care services, to promote intergenerational solidarity, to encourage older persons’ social participation and the promotion of age friendly environments.
Care services • To establish the social service system for the older persons. • For the first time in China, the central government announced in late 2011 a national plan to establish the social service system for the older persons, the key contents include developing the community services to support the older persons and their family members to live as long as possible at their homes and the strategy to develop the institutional care and improve the quality of care. • Aim: by the end of 2015, China will have more than 6 million beds available for institutional care (currently 4 million beds), which will enable 3 per cent older persons to get the care services at the nursing homes.
III. China’s experience and key mechanisms • How to turn national policy into action at sub-national level; • Population policy Provincial regulations following the national policy. Rural/urban policy differences: 5 provinces to allow all rural couples to have 2 children. Eastern low fertility areas to change the policy first.
Protecting the rights of older persons • Committees on ageing at all levels. • Provincial regulations revised. • Provincial 5 years plan and indicators. (9073 or 9064). • Monitoring statistical systems. • Annual reports on ageing causes.
Care services • State council: promoting the elderly services. • Province: detailed policies. State: increase the beds of nursing homes. provincial level: subsidy the construction and running. • Institutional care: setting and management regulations regarding beds and personnel. • Community care: integrating the community centres.
Roles of each level and role of older people • Coordinating agency and specific roles. • Detailed regulations to implement policy. • Operational evaluation indicators. • Survey of the older persons to collect comments and to improve the policy. • OPA to voice the needs and policy.