Leadership and Management Tim Sullivan HPEM 356
What is a Manager? • Management and administration are terms that are often used interchangeably. A manager or administrator is a person who primarily is involved in the process of: • making plans • making decisions • organizing people or events • supervising staff • leading groups • motivating people, and • controlling organizational resources
Leadership • The act of guiding or directing others to a course of action through persuasion or influence (intentional) • Leadership is a broader concept than management • Charismatic Leaders – natural leader • Positional Leaders – election or appointment
The Importance of Management • The success of most sporting businesses, physical education and athletic programs, and even athletic teams depends a great deal on how well they are organized and managed.
Some of management's important contributions are: • The way a program is organized or managed will change a person perception about those elements the program is promoting. • Knowledge of management allows you to evaluate and critique a program's effectiveness. • Knowledge of management will also allow you assimilate your role in a team better. • Management promotes cohesive team work and "esprit de corps". • Understanding organization and management helps ensure continuity of a program. • Understanding how a program is organized and what the objectives are helps ensure that all parts of the program are complementary to one another, and all lead to a common goal.
Key Administrative Concepts • There are 5 key concepts that you as a manager have to learn to master. These are: • Authority - the right given to a person to act in a certain way or carry out certain tasks. • Power - the ability to command someone or stand in judgment of them. • Delegation - the ability to shift authority and power to another person. • Responsibility - the obligation to carry out the assigned tasks in an acceptable way. • Accountability - the responsibility of showing that the task was successfully performed in an acceptable way.
Director has Power over • Knowledge • Budget • Task Assignment • Defense • Communications • Committee Appointments
The Scope of Management • Personnel Matters (recruiting, assigning responsibilities, evaluations, etc.) • Program Responsibilities (scheduling, revising programs, coordinating activities, seeking funding, etc.) • Facilities Concerns (supervising facilities, maintaining inventory, etc.)
Managerial Framework and Functions • Within the concept of management, there is a number of elements or functions that you as physical educators will be involved with. These are: • Planning • Organizing • Staffing • Leading • Controlling
Planning • Planning is the process of logically and purposefully outlining the work that needs to be performed, together with the methods to be used, the materials needed, and the time allocated for the performance.
Organizing • Organizing allows for the assignment of work to others. The coordinating centers of authority are developed and organized primarily on the basis of the work to be done by the organization, services performed, individuals available, and efficiency of operation.
Staffing • At some point in your career you will be required to be part of a management team (if not responsible for the whole process) for staffing. • Staffing refers to the selection, assignment, training, staff development, and the maintenance of desirable working conditions.
Leading • A manager is required to lead, motivate and influence the individuals that make up the organization. For an organization to be successful, the manager must motivate and yet still make decisions related to discipline, promotion, and achievement. A clear understanding of the organization and responsibilities of each person in it can make this task much easier. • Good managers know when to take control and when to delegate responsibility.
Controlling • A manager controls by ensuring: • the proper execution of the plans • setting job expectations • outlining methods and procedures for measuring successful completion of tasks • initiating corrective action in the event tasks are not successfully completed • maintaining liaison with subordinates to ensure cohesive progress (this is done by providing subordinates with needed support information, as well as being kept informed as to the progress of the tasks assigned to those subordinates).
Management Functions • These 5 general functions are usually exhibited in the following tasks that are usually assigned to managers: • decision making • problem solving • budgeting • evaluating • communicating • reporting • delegating • innovating • coordinating • representing • creating • motivating
Efficient Managers • Personal Qualifications • For the most part, people are employed for positions in physical education based on the following areas: • Experience (i.e., Teaching skills, past time spent in sport and physical education, past coaching positions, etc.) • Education (i.e., Degree level, certifications, workshops attended and awards presented, etc.) • Personal Traits (i.e., Character references, criminal checks, past tasks that have required responsibility and that have been satisfactorily completed, etc.)
Managerial Skills • A good manager needs to have 3 elements to be successful in the field you wish them to operate in. These are: • Technical Skills - The manager must have a good understanding of the task he or she is expected to complete and the process by which it will be completed. • Human Skills - This is the managers ability to work and communicate with people. This includes the ability to shape attitudes, develop cooperative teams, and provide the needed motivation to those who work under this manager. • Conceptual Skills - The ability to see the whole picture and the role of the tasks the manager is responsible for in that picture.
Leadership Styles • Authoritarian: • The authoritarian orientation implies one-person leadership with decision making imposed on group members by the manager. • Participative, Democratic: • The democratic philosophy implies a manager who submits important matters to group discussion and involves group members in both the input and output (decision-making) process • Anarchic Style, Laissez-faire • The laissez-faire orientation is thought of as an extension of the democratic approach in which little guidance is provided, and decision making is frequently left to group members.
Qualifications to become an Effective Director • Activity-based program • Desire to lead • Leadership attributes and skills • Training and experience
Desire to Lead • Rewards • Economic advantages • Power • Providing satisfaction to others • Supportive Staff • Chance of Succeeding • Meeting expected goals
Cost of Leadership • Responsibility • Loneliness • Criticism and Abuse
Leadership Attributes and Skills • Natural Gifts • Acquired qualities • Learned skills
Natural Gifts • intelligence, • common sense, • creativity and initiative, • charisma
Acquired qualities • Compassion, • respect for others, • integrity and honesty, • loyalty, • ability to instill good will, • commitment, administrative mind, decisiveness, • courage, • patience and tolerance, • wisdom)
Specific skills • Skill as an Educator • Fund-raising Ability • Writing and Editing Skills • High Level of Fitness • Knowledge of Fitness and Sports
Qualifications • Experience • Teaching Skill • Coaching • Community relations • Education • College • Coursework related to position • Certification (First Aid, CPR) • Personal Traits • Honest • Fair • Cooperative
The Golden Rules of Management in Physical Education and Sport 1.There should be a clear and defined structure of organization and authority (e.g., a chain of command showing the principal at the top, the head of the physical education department next, physical education faculty, and then students). 2.Everyone works toward a common goal (i.e., unity of purpose for everyone). 3.The number of subordinates that can be organized by any one person should be known and not exceeded (i.e., know your control limits). 4.Maintain communication to avoid duplication and areas not covered (i.e., go to faculty meetings, and read the memo's. Be aware of what everyone else is doing).
The Golden Rules of Management in Physical Education and Sport 5.Ensure coordination and cooperation among all the departments in the organization (e.g., make sure you are good friends with the school caretaker, and the principal's secretary). 6.Lead as a manager. Be supportive, motivational, and aware of the work conditions your subordinates are in. 7.Go with the things that your staff specialize in. This not only ensures a good product but improves the management process as well.
The Golden Rules of Management in Physical Education and Sport 8.Organizational charts not only define authority but also responsibility. Make sure the lines of responsibility are as clear as the lines of authority and that those who work with you and under you are sure as to the extent of their responsibilities. 9.Don't make the process of organization the goal of the program. Organization is a means to an end, not the end itself. 10.There is no single correct form of organization.