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Management and Leadership

Management and Leadership

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Management and Leadership

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  1. Management and Leadership Arif Altaf 2018

  2. The objectives of this session: • Describe leadership and identify the relationship between leadership and management. • Analyze different theories of leadership as they apply to management. • Examine styles of leadership and their impact on organizations. • Consider the question of leadership power and control. • Leadership from the ethnic diversity management point. SWH


  4. Leadership is the process of motivation other people to act in particular ways in order to achieve specific goals. Leadership is a willingness to accept responsibility, an ability to develop three major skills (elicit the cooperation of others, listen well, place the needs of others above your own needs) that can be acquired through practice. SWH

  5. Leadership is a set of skills and traits that can be learned and worked on, yet the general perception is that good leaders are few because: leaders come in guises leaders may rise only in response to a situation leaders may be unwanted until needed leaders may be mistaken for managers You don’t have to be smarter than the next person, just more motivated to get your ideas put into practice SWH

  6. Lead people. Leaders do the right things. Leadership sets the style and tone for achieving a vision and motivates people to sacrifice for the attainment of the vision. Leader is responsible for vision and how it relates to each person. You manage things. Managers do things right. Management is the tactical process of executing and achieving the mission. Management’s concern lie with the details and the day to day grind without which a vision can't become a reality. Manager has to be willingly responsible for the details of the mission. Leadership vs. Management SWH

  7. Leadership vs. Management Leadershipcan been seen as performing the influencing function of management, largelyinvolved in goals setting and motivating people to achieve them. Leaders decide where we are going and influence people to take that particular direction, rather than describe ‘how we are going to get there. Inspired leaders are not necessarily good organizers and excellent managers. The most effective managers are also leaders, and the quality of leadership has become and increasingly important part of management ability. SWH

  8. Leadership Types All leadership is temporary-the transient nature of leadership is because the situation may come to an end or times and circumstances change: • Situational Leadership • Transitional Leadership • Hierarchical Leadership SWH

  9. Situational Leadership • The right person in the right place at the right moment. • Recognize the time and circumstances. • Willingness and ability to assume the responsibility, listen and to take the responsibility to help the group achieve its goal. • It often involves: no cost decision, solomonic decision, moral decision, meditative decision, community decisions, philanthropic decisions, institutional decisions, community decisions, princely decisions. Bring example form your own experience SWH

  10. Transitional Leadership • The right time but wrong circumstances. • It may occur when: leadership requires at a certain moment, but the person who is the leader may not be capable of delivering the leadership. • Transitional leaders may: be missing all the right stuff, be fearing the risk. Bring example form your own experience SWH

  11. Hierarchical Leadership • The right circumstances but wrong time. • Assumes a leadership role because it is “their turn”, whether they want the role or not. Bring example form your own experience SWH

  12. Leadership Traits theories How should leader look like? SWH

  13. Theories of Leadership • Behavioral • Contingency • Situational • Path-Goal • Participatory • Charismatic and transformational leadership SWH

  14. Behavioral Approach to Leadership • Concern for People employee-oriented (e.g. service: hospitals, restaurants) • Concern for Production task-oriented (e.g. manufacturing) SWH

  15. Management GridManagers can decide how close to any of these grids is their form of leadership • Country Club High concern for people and low concern for production. Leadership Activity is to secure the voluntary co-operation of group members to obtain high level of productivity. Too easy going managers and unable decision makers. • Authoritarian High concern for production and low concern for people. Alienated managers, to keep themselves out of trouble. • Impoverished – “laissez-faire” Low concern for production and for people. Doesn't provide positive leadership sense. SWH

  16. Management GridManagers can decide how close to any of these grids is their form of leadership • Middle-of-the-road Moderate amount for production and people. Compromise style, support the Status quo, they are not dynamic leaders and may have difficulties for innovation and change. • Team High concern for production and people. The most effective leadership. SWH

  17. The Management Grid 1.9 9.9 High 9 Country Club management Team management 8 7 6 5.5 5 Middle-of-the-road management 4 3 2 Impoverished management Authoritarian management 1.1 9.1 Low 1 3 9 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 SWH Low High

  18. Contingency Approach to LeadershipThere are 3 main “forces” on managers in deciding a leadership style • Personal Forces managers’ own background, experience, confidence and leadership inclinations (e.g. ) • Characteristics of subordinates managers’ need to consider the subordinates willingness and unwillingness for responsibility and decision taking acceptance. (e.g. ) • Situation managers’ need to recognize the situation where they find themselves in terms of corporate culture and colleges’ style of work (e.g. ). SWH

  19. Leadership Continuum Autocratic Democratic Laissez-fair Use of authority by manager Area of freedom for employees Manager makes decision and announces it. Manager Sells decisions. Manager presents ideas and invites questions. Manager presents tentative decision, subject to change. Manager presents problem, receives suggestions, and makes decisions. Manager defines limits set by senior manager and asks group to Make decision. Manager permits employees to function within limits defined by senior manager. Manager allows employees complete freedom of action. SWH

  20. Situational Approach to Leadership • Leader-member relations • Task Structure • Leaders’ position power SWH

  21. High Relationship -motivated leaders perform better Task motivated Leaders perform better Low 1 2 5 6 7 8 3 4 Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Poor Structured Unstructured Structured Unstructured Strong Weak Strong Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Situational determinants of effective leadership Leader-member relation Task Structure Leader position power SWH

  22. Leader Behavior High 3 Share ideas and facilitate in making decisions… Hi task Lo. rel. 2 Explain your decisions andprovide opportunity for clarification Hi. task Hi. rel. Selling Participating Telling Relationship Behavior Supportive behavior Delegating Lo. task Lo. rel. 4Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation… 1Hi. task Provide specificLo. rel.instructions and closely supervise performance… R Low High Situational Approach to LeadershipManagers need to vary their leadership style with each phase Task Behavior Directive behavior SWH

  23. Path-Goal approach of LeadershipManager identifies the ‘goals’ and rewards the ‘paths’ to be take, to reach them • Identifies and communicates to subordinates the path they follow in order to achieve personal and organizational objectives. • Helps subordinates along the chosen path. • Helps to remove obstacles on the path that might prevent the achievement of these objectives. In this process an effective leader: SWH

  24. Participatory approach of LeadershipThere are 5 leadership styles according to Vroom and Yetton in decision-making process: • Autocratic I (AI)-managers solve the problem or make the decisions themselves, using the available information. • Autocratic II (AII)-managers obtain information from subordinates before making the decisions themselves. • Consultative I (CI)-managers share the problem with the relevant subordinates individually and obtain their ideas and information and then make the decisions themselves. • Consultative II (CII)-managers share the problem with the relevant subordinates as a group and obtain their ideas and information and then make the decisions themselves. • Group Participation (G)-managers share the problem with subordinates as a group and together analyze the problem and consider the alternative solutions. SWH

  25. Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Charismatic leaders are able through their personal vision and energy inspire follower and have major impact on an organization. • Anticipatory skills • Vision skills • Value skills • Empowerment skills • Self-understanding skills “More leaders have been made by accidental circumstances, sheer grit, or will, than have been made by all the leadership courses together”. SWH

  26. Group Work • Read the case and answer these two questions. • Each group presents the exhibits to another group by defining the leadership approaches/theories described in the passages. SWH

  27. Modern Theory Y Participation Co-operation Work Communication is natural Creativity Traditional Theory X Control Direction Work Orders is a Security necessity Theories X and Y SWH

  28. The Power of Leaders • Coercive Power – the main consideration in a general discussion on the object, fear of leader, punishment, threats-autocratic leadership • Expert Power – expertise, knowledgeable, recognition • Legitimate Power – hierarchy of the organization, the more senior the manager is, the more power has. • ReferentPower - charismatic • RewardPower – ability to provide rewards for the followers, as pay, promotion and recognition. • ConnectionPower – relationship with influential partners (inside & outside). • InformationPower – access to valuable information. SWH

  29. Leadership Styles • Coercive – Do what I tell you • Affiliative – People come first • Pacesetting – Do as I do, now • Authoritative – Come with me • Democratic – What do you think? • Coaching – Try this SWH

  30. Theories/Approaches Styles Summary Country Club Autocratic Impoverished – “laissez-faire” Middle-of-the-road Team Autocratic I Autocratic II Consultative I Consultative II Group Participation Coercive, Affiliative, Pacesetting, Authoritative, Democratic, Coaching Behavioral Contingency Situational Path-Goal Participatory Charismatic and transformational leadership X & Y SWH

  31. Group Presentations (12 min each Group) Topic: Leadership and Organizational Culture SWH

  32. Evaluation Criteria – • Way of Presentation (voice, eye contact, command) • Message Delivery (how clear was the message delivered to the auditorium, key points were presented, ability to answer the questions) • Team Work (how the team work was seen through the presentation, support of the team members during the presentation) SWH

  33. Leadership: Stephen Covey “Effective leadership is putting first things first”. “Effective management is discipline, carrying it out”. SWH

  34. Habit 1 “Be Proactive” Proactive vs. Reactive Habit 2 “Begin with the End in Mind” See the destination Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success. Leadership determines whether the ladder leaning the right wall. 7 Habits of Highly Effective People What is going to happen What we can do SWH

  35. Habit 3 “Put First Things First” Time Matrix Habit 4 “Think Win/Win” Win/Win character, relationship, agreements, systems, process Win/Lose Lose/Win Lose/Lose Win Win Win or No Deal 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Not Urgent Important SWH

  36. Habit 5 “Seek First to Understand, then to be Understood” “Emotional Bank Account” Most do not listen with the intent to understand, they listen with the intent to reply. Habit 6 “Synergize” If you plant 2 plants close together, the roots commingle and improve the quality of the soil so that both plants will grow better if they were separate. 7 Habits of Highly Effective People SWH

  37. Habit 7 “Sharpen the Sow” Physical – exercise, stress management, nutrition Mental – reading, planning, writing Emotional/Social – service, empathy, synergy Spiritual - commitment, study, meditation 7 Habits of Highly Effective People SWH

  38. - Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?' - `That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat. - `I don't much care where--' said Alice. • `Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland SWH

  39. Leadership in Ethnic Diversity Management …To speak of an ethnic group in total isolation is as absurd as to speak of the sound of one hand clapping… SWH

  40. Military Experience Work Experience Geographic Location Gender Income Mental/ physical abilities and ch-s Education Age Religion Sexual Orientation Work Style First Language Family Status Organizational role and level Diversity and Its Dimensions Secondary Dimensions The Diversity Wheel Primary Dimensions Race Ethnic Heritage SWH

  41. Exercise Think one case in your life that your were the minority in the society. SWH

  42. Leadership Management Follower/ Employees of Diverse groups What comes to your mind when you see this?What does it means for management and leadership to work in diverse social context?What could we see in our example? SWH

  43. Problem Analysis Group Work • Divide into 2 groups: Leaders and Managers • Read the case • Priorities the problems • Group presentations (10 min each) SWH

  44. Is Leadership Necessary? • 1st task of the Leaders: to be the trumpet that sounds a clear sound. • 2nd task of the Leaders: to accept the leadership as responsibility rather than rank or privilege. • 3rd task of the Leaders: to earn trust. SWH

  45. What do the effective leaders do? Set strategy Create a Mission Motivate Build a Culture What should leaders do? To get Results SWH

  46. Leadership vs. Management “Managers are people who do things right and Leaders are people who do the right things” SWH

  47. Conclusion • Management is largely concerned with leadership, because managers need to establish a sense of direction and to motivate people to move in that direction. • Understanding of leadership theories provides the basis for analyzing leadership and management styles. It is also a factor in the process of making decisions. • Charismatic leadership helps to illustrate the power of leaders. Discussion of the need for leadership highlights the management tasks and objectives. SWH

  48. Case Study The Qualities of Leadership Personality andCharacter Willpower Courage Knowledge Initiative Unselfishness Enjoyment of being a leader SWH

  49. Review The objectives of this Capstone course: • Describe leadership and identify the relationship between leadership and management. • Analyze different theories of leadership as they apply to management. • Examine styles of leadership and their impact on organizations. • Consider the question of leadership power and control. • Leadership from the ethnic diversity management point. SWH

  50. Questions/Comments