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Evolution of Birds from Reptiles

Evolution of Birds from Reptiles

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Evolution of Birds from Reptiles

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  1. Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones

  2. Thecodontosaurus

  3. Thecodontosaurus

  4. Iguanodon

  5. Ingenia

  6. Incisivosaurus

  7. Archeopteryx 150 mya

  8. Archaeopteryx • Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya) Reptilian char- • Large skull, reptile like teeth • Bones solid • Claws on forelimbs • Long tail Bird Char.- • Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding • Feathers • Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone

  9. Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya • Large, flightless bird • Had teeth like reptiles

  10. Ichthyornis • Smaller, tern like bird • Lived 65-80 mya • Had large flight wings

  11. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits: Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles

  12. General Bird Anatomy SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa.

  13. Birds Have the Highest Metabolism

  14. Metabolic Adaptations • Birds have high metabolism • Endothermic, 4 chambered heart • Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. • Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract • Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss • Counter-current circulation

  15. Respiration

  16. Counter-Current Circulation

  17. Excretion – Uric Acid • Uric acid metabolic excretion • (Saves water) • Urea • Ammonia

  18. Adaptations for Flight Feathers- modified scales Pectoral appendages = wings Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally

  19. Types of Feathers

  20. Furculum and Keeled Sternum

  21. Wings

  22. Flight Forces

  23. Avian Reproduction • Amniotic egg • Internal fertilization • Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body • Both parents care for eggs • Precocial young- active at hatching • Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching • migration

  24. Egg Shapes

  25. Starling Nests

  26. Weaver Bird Nest

  27. Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird eggs?

  28. Migration

  29. Bird Classification • 28 orders • 9600 species SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa.

  30. Super Orders of Birds • SuperorderArchaeornithes- “ancient birds”, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx • SuperorderNeornithes- “new” birds- modern Paleognathae- “old jaw” Neognathae- “new jaw”

  31. Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes • Large flightless bird • Two toes • Old jaw • Ex. ostriches

  32. Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes • Pelicans, cormorants, boobies

  33. Neo- Order Ciconiiformes • Long legs for wading • Long necks

  34. Order Anseriformes • Flat bill • Webbed feet • Swans, geese, ducks

  35. Order Falconiformes • Hooked bill • Talons • Eagle • Hawk • Falcon

  36. Order Passeriformes • Perching foot • Songbirds • 5000 species • Mocking bird • Thrushes • Swallows • Magpie • Crow • Starling • Jays

  37. Order Columbiformes • Short neck • Short legs • Pigeons • Doves

  38. Order Strigiformes • Large eyes • Silent flight • Nocturnal predator • Owls

  39. Order Apodiformes • Small bird • Rapid wingbeat • Hummingbirds