Marine Reptiles & Birds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Marine Reptiles & Birds

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  1. Marine Reptiles & Birds

  2. Evolution Onto Land & Sea • Fish-Like Vertebrate  Tetrapods “”four footed” • Obstacles: • Walk on Land  two pair of limbs, structural support • Breath Oxygen  lungs (two internal air sacs) • Eggs Drying Out  laying eggs in water, having leathery shell or calcium shell • Tetrapods  Marine Mammals • Some reptiles and mammals decided to venture back into the ocean

  3. Marine Reptiles • Over 7,000 species • Snakes, Lizards, Turtles, Crocodiles • Dry Skin Covered in Scales • Prevents water loss • Poikilotherms • Body temp varies with environmental temp • Ectotherms • Loses metabolic heat without affecting body temp, also activity lessens in colder temps

  4. Sea Turtles • Ancient Reptiles • Carapace: armor-like shell fused to backbone • Unlike land turtles, cannot retract head • Limbs modified into flippers • Larger front flippers for swimming • Only 9 Species • Includes Loggerheads, Leatherbacks, Kemp’s Ridley, Green, & Hawksbill

  5. Kemp’s Ridley Leatherback Hawksbill Loggerhead Green

  6. Leatherback Turtle In Gulf of Mexico

  7. Reproduction of Turtles • All turtles return to land to reproduce • Migrate long distances • Male & Females copulate off beaches • Females only, come to land to lay eggs • DNA shows that same females go to same nesting sites • Lay 100-160 eggs

  8. Hatchling Predators • After 60 days incubation, eggs hatch • Predators • Crabs • Birds • Dogs • Fishes • Humans • Live 40-80 years

  9. Sea Snakes • Approx. 55 species • Body is laterally flattened • Most are 1 to 1.3 m (3-4 ft) • Mate in ocean & ovoviviparous (birth live young), some still lay eggs on land • Carnivorous & Venomous

  10. Marine Iguanas • Most of the time seen basking in sun • Eats seaweeds • Dives up to 40ft to graze on food • Salt Excretion Glands on Nose

  11. Saltwater Crocodile • One of the most aggressive • Known to attack & eat humans • Live in mangroves and estuaries • Eastern Indian Ocean, Australia, & Western Pacific • Usually ~6m long • Largest recorded was 10m (33ft)

  12. Seabirds • Seabirds = those birds that spend a significant part of lives at sea & feed on marine organisms • Homeotherms (“warm-blooded”) • Endotherms • Hollow Bones • Waterproof Feathers • Eggs have Hard Shells

  13. Penguins • Flightless, with wings modified into flippers • Have Denser Bones • Can Jump out of Water • In water: • Streamlined bodies allow for fast movement • On Land: • Awkward, Clumsy walkers • Near-sighted; eyes adapted to underwater vision

  14. Penguin Life • Adapted to live in cold environments • Dense, waterproof feather heated by body heat & protect against the cold • All but 1 of 18 species live in Antarctic & Southern Hemisphere • Feed on fish, squid, & krill • Pairs Mate for Life • Males and females share warning the egg & caring for young

  15. Tubenoses • Get name from Tube-like Nostrils • Have heavy beaks curved at tip • Salt Glands • Catch fish at Surface • Incredible Migration: • Antarctic to Arctic Petrels Albatross

  16. Pelicans & Related Birds • All have webbing in between all four toes • Pelicans • Have unique pouch under large beak • Plunge into water catching fish in pouch • Cormorants • Black with long necks; also dive for prey • Frigate Birds • Seldom enter the water • Feathers not waterproof • Have narrow wings, with long forked tail

  17. Gulls • Make up largest variety of birds • Eat Just about anything • Can be found miles inshore

  18. Gull Related Birds Puffins Terns Jaegers

  19. Cattle Egrets Shorebirds • Do not have webbed feet • Do not swim much • Run along beach Blue Herons Plovers

  20. Birds Seen Out in Gulf Barn Swallow American Redstart Masked Booby Belted Kingfisher Orchard Oriole American Robin Perregrine Falcon White-Winged Dove

  21. Not All Birds Survive