Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones
Archeopteryx 150 mya
Archaeopteryx • Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya) Reptilian char- • Large skull, reptile like teeth • Bones solid • Claws on forelimbs • Long tail Bird Char.- • Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding • Feathers • Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone
Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya • Large, flightless bird • Had teeth like reptiles
Ichthyornis • Smaller, tern like bird • Lived 65-80 mya • Had large flight wings
Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits: Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles
General Bird Anatomy SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa.
Metabolic Adaptations • Birds have high metabolism • Endothermic, 4 chambered heart • Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. • Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract • Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss • Counter-current circulation
Excretion – Uric Acid • Uric acid metabolic excretion • (Saves water)
Adaptations for Flight Feathers- modified scales Pectoral appendages = wings Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally Fused furculum (wishbone) keeled sternum
Avian Reproduction • Amniotic egg • Internal fertilization • Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body • Both parents care for eggs • Precocial young- active at hatching • Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching • migration
Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird eggs?
Pop Quiz • List three adaptations that allow birds to have a high metabolism. • List three adaptations that allow birds to fly. • What type of egg does a bird have? • What is the name of the class the bird belongs to?
Avian Classification • 28 orders • 9600 species SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa.
Super Orders of Birds • SuperorderArchaeornithes- “ancient birds”, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx • SuperorderNeornithes- “new” birds- modern Paleognathae- “old jaw” Neognathae- “new jaw”
Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes • Large flightless bird • Two toes • Old jaw • Ex. ostriches
Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes • Pelicans, cormorants, boobies
Neo- Order Ciconiiformes • Long legs for wading • Long necks • Pink or orange because of carotenoids in algae and brine shrimp that eat algae • Liver enzymes break down the carotenoids into pink and orange pigments that are deposited into feathers, bill, and legs
Order Anseriformes • Flat bill • Webbed feet • Swans, geese, ducks
Order Falconiformes • Hooked bill • Talons • Eagle • Hawk • Falcon
Order Passeriformes • Perching foot • Songbirds • 5000 species • Mocking bird • Thrushes • Swallows • Magpie • Crow • Starling • Jays • Lyres- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAwiFMKPHmY
Order Columbiformes • Short neck • Short legs • Pigeons • Doves
Order Strigiformes • Large eyes • Silent flight • Nocturnal predator • Owls • http://www.owlpages.com/sounds/Strix-varia-3.mp3