Characteristics • Strong bony skeleton • Well developed lungs • Most have 2 pairs of legs • Legs are thick • Toes with claws • Excretory system designed to conserve water
Characteristics Cont’d • Color change • Dominant sense – sight • Uric acid – primary excretory product • 4 chambered heart • Sex determination - high temp – males - low temp - females
Order Testudines • Turtles • @ 225 species • Beak rather than teeth • Eat plants and animals • Most are highly endangered • Leatherback up to 9’ and 1 ton.
Order SquamataSuborder Sauria • Lizards • Eat plants and animals • Komodo Dragon – up to 10 ft long • Marine Iguanas – feed on algae
Order SquamataSuborder Serpentes • Snakes • No limbs • Strong flexible bodies • Oviparous or ovoviviparous • Well developed sense of taste and smell
Snake Feeding • Jacobson’s organs – olfactory pouches used to track prey and find females • Pit organs – detect heat • Swallow prey whole • Upper and lower jaws can move independently • Posteriorly pointing teeth
Snake Venom • Hemotoxins - destroy red blood cells and cause internal bleeding - vipers • Neurotoxins – paralyze nerve cells, respiratory paralysis - Cobras, coral snakes, and sea snakes
Order Crocodilia • Crocodiles and Alligators • Differences • Carnivores • Live in water • Extend nostrils above water for air
Feathers Composed mainly of keratin • Down feathers - soft, fluffy feathers providing insulation. • Filoplumes - thin, hair-like feathers. • Contour feathers - shape and color the body. • Flight feathers - specialized contour feathers on wings and tail that provide lift.
Skeleton • Light bones • Air sacs – greatly increase lung’s ability to take in oxygen. • Forelimbs function as wings, not for grasping • Types of feet based on type of food and environment.
Types of bills • Toothless • Depend on type of food gathered
Cardiovascular System • Body temperature is internally regulated (endothermic) • Heart is 4-chambered • High metabolism - provides the large amount of energy needed for flight. • Rapid heartbeat - moves large amount of blood through the body for gas exchange.
Nervous System Highly developed • Controls flight, • Helps navigation, • Enhances vision and hearing.
Digestive System • Crop - stores food for processing by the gizzard. • Gizzard - grinds the food.
Shore Birds • feed in intertidal zone, long legs and sharp beaks. (ex. Sandpipers)
Gulls • predators and scavengers found all over the world. Generally live around shoreline.
Pelicans, Cormorants, etc • Dive for food • Gular pouch serves as a net
Albatross • Superb gliders (11ft wing span) • Return to land only to nest
Penguins • Heavier bones and layers of fat. • Most highly adapted to life in the sea • Preyed upon by leopard seals & killer whales