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Plant Development

Plant Development

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Plant Development

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  1. Plant Development Chapter 31 Part 1

  2. Impacts, IssuesFoolish Seedlings, Gorgeous Grapes • Gibberellin and other plant hormones control the growth and development of plants – environmental cues influence hormone secretion

  3. 31.1 Patterns of Development in Plants • Germination • Process by which a dormant mature embryo sporophyte in a seed resumes growth • Certain species-specific conditions may be required to break dormancy • Begins when water activates enzymes in the seed • Ends when the embryo breaks the seed coat

  4. Patterns of Development in Plants • Growth (increase in cell number and size) occurs primarily at meristems • Differentiation results in the formation of tissues and parts in predictable patterns • Patterns of plant development are an outcome of gene expression and environmental influences

  5. Anatomy of a Corn Seed

  6. seed coat fused with ovary wall endosperm cells cotyledon coleoptile plumule (embryonic shoot) embryo hypocotyl radicle (embryonic root) Fig. 31-2, p. 524

  7. Early Growth of Corn (Monocot)

  8. Fig. 31-3a, p. 525

  9. coleoptile branch root primary root coleoptile hypocotyl radicle A After a corn grain (seed) germinates, its radicle and coleoptile emerge. The radicle develops into the primary root. The coleoptile grows upward and opens a channel through the soil to the surface, where it stops growing. Fig. 31-3a, p. 525

  10. Fig. 31-3b, p. 525

  11. primary leaf adventitious (prop) root coleoptile branch root primary root B The plumule develops into the seedling’s primary shoot, which pushes through the coleoptile and begins photosynthesis. In corn plants, adventitious roots that develop from the stem afford additional support for the rapidly growing plant. Fig. 31-3b, p. 525

  12. coleoptile primary leaf branch root adventitious (prop) root coleoptile primary root coleoptile branch root hypocotyl primary root radicle A After a corn grain (seed) germinates, its radicle and coleoptile emerge. The radicle develops into the primary root. The coleoptile grows upward and opens a channel through the soil to the surface, where it stops growing. B The plumule develops into the seedling’s primary shoot, which pushes through the coleoptile and begins photosynthesis. In corn plants, adventitious roots that develop from the stem afford additional support for the rapidly growing plant. Stepped Art Fig. 31-3, p. 525

  13. Animation: Plant development

  14. Early Growth of a Bean (Eudicot)

  15. Fig. 31-4a, p. 525

  16. seed coat radicle cotyledons (two) hypocotyl primary root A After a bean seed germinates, its radicle emerges and bends in the shape of a hook. Sunlight causes the hypocotyl to straighten, which pulls the cotyledons up through the soil. Fig. 31-4a, p. 525

  17. Fig. 31-4b, p. 525

  18. B Photosynthetic cells in the cotyledons make food for several days, then the seedling’s leaves take over the task. The cotyledons wither and fall off. primary leaf primary leaf withered cotyledon branch root primary root root nodule Fig. 31-4b, p. 525

  19. Summary: Eudicot Development

  20. mature sporophyte (2n) germination zygote in seed (2n) meiosis in anther meiosis in ovary DIPLOID fertilization HAPLOID eggs (n) microspores (n) megaspores (n) sperm (n) male gametophyte (n) female gametophyte (n) Fig. 31-22, p. 535

  21. 31.1 Key Concepts Patterns of Plant Development • Plant development includes seed germination and all events of the life cycle, such as root and shoot development, flowering, fruit formation, and dormancy • These activities have a genetic basis, but are also influenced by environmental factors

  22. 31.2 Plant Hormones and Other Signaling Molecules • Plant development depends on cell-to-cell communication – mediated by plant hormones • Plant hormones • Signaling molecules that can stimulate or inhibit plant development, including growth • Five types: Gibberellins, auxins, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and ethylene

  23. Gibberellins • Gibberellins induce cell division and elongation in stem tissue, and are involved in germination

  24. Auxins • Auxins promote or inhibit cell division and elongation, depending on the target tissue • Auxin produced in a shoot tip prevents growth of lateral buds (apical dominance) • Auxins also induce fruit development in ovaries, and lateral root formation in roots

  25. Rooting Powder with Auxin

  26. Abscisic Acid • Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits growth, is part of a stress response that causes stomata to close, and diverts products of photosynthesis from leaves to seeds

  27. Cytokinins • Cytokinins form in roots and travel to shoots, where they induce cell division in apical meristems • Cytokinins also release lateral buds from apical dominance and inhibit leaf aging

  28. Ethylene • Ethylene • The only gaseous hormone • Produced by damaged or aging cells • Induces fruit and leaves to mature and drop • Used to artificially ripen fruit

  29. Major Plant Hormones and Their Effects

  30. Commercial Uses of Plant Hormones

  31. Other Signaling Molecules • Besides hormones, other signaling molecules are involved in plant development • Brassinosteroids • FT protein • Salicylic acid • Systemin • Jasmonates

  32. 31.3 Examples of Plant Hormone Effects • Gibberellins and barley seed germination • Barley seed absorbs water • Embryo releases gibberellin • Gibberellin induces transcription of amylase gene • Amylase breaks stored starches into sugars used by embryo for aerobic respiration

  33. Gibberellins in Barley Seed Germination

  34. Gibberellins in Barley Seed Germination

  35. Gibberellins in Barley Seed Germination

  36. aleurone endosperm embryo gibberellin A Absorbed water causes cells of a barley embryo to release gibberellin, which diffuses through the seed into the aleurone layer of the endosperm. Fig. 31-7a, p. 528

  37. amylase B Gibberellin triggers cells of the aleurone layer to express the gene for amylase. This enzyme diffuses into the starch-packed middle of the endosperm. Fig. 31-7b, p. 528

  38. sugars C The amylase hydrolyzes starch into sugar monomers, which diffuse into the embryo and are used in aerobic respiration. Energy released by the reactions of aerobic respiration fuels meristem cell divisions in the embryo. Fig. 31-7c, p. 528

  39. aleurone endosperm embryo A Absorbed water causes cells of a barley embryo to release gibberellin, which diffuses through the seed into the aleurone layer of the endosperm. gibberellin B Gibberellin triggers cells of the aleurone layer to express the gene for amylase. This enzyme diffuses into the starch-packed middle of the endosperm. amylase C The amylase hydrolyzes starch into sugar monomers, which diffuse into the embryo and are used in aerobic respiration. Energy released by the reactions of aerobic respiration fuels meristem cell divisions in the embryo. sugars Stepped Art Fig. 31-7a, p. 528

  40. Examples of Plant Hormone Effects • Auxin (IAA) plays a critical role in all aspects of plant development • First division of the zygote • Polarity and tissue pattern in the embryo • Formation of plant parts • Differentiation of vascular tissues • Formation of lateral roots • Responses to environmental stimuli

  41. Directional Transport of Auxin

  42. auxin time time auxin A A coleoptile stops growing if its tip is removed. A block of agar will absorb auxin from the cut tip. B Growth of a de-tipped coleoptile will resume when the agar block with absorbed auxin is placed on top of it. C If the agar block is placed to one side of the shaft, the coleoptile will bend as it grows. Fig. 31-8, p. 529

  43. time time A A coleoptile stops growing if its tip is removed. A block of agar will absorb auxin from the cut tip. B Growth of a de-tipped coleoptile will resume when the agar block with absorbed auxin is placed on top of it. C If the agar block is placed to one side of the shaft, the coleoptile will bend as it grows. Stepped Art Fig. 31-8, p. 529

  44. Animation: Auxin’s effects

  45. Examples of Plant Hormone Effects • Jasmonates signal plant defenses • Wounding by herbivores cleaves peptides (such as systemin) in mesophyll cells • Activated peptides stimulate jasmonate synthesis, which turns on transcription of several genes • Some gene products slow growth • Other gene products signal wasps to attack specific herbivores responsible for damage

  46. Jasmonates in Plant Defenses

  47. 31.2-31.3 Key ConceptsMechanisms of Hormone Action • Cell-to-cell communication is essential to development and survival of all multicelled organisms • In plants, such communication occurs by hormones