ENVIRONMENTS Read 199-207
SIZES OF ENVIRONMENTS SMALLEST LARGEST • ORGANISM • MICRO-HABITAT • HABITAT • BIOME • BIOGRAPHICAL REGION • BIOSPHERE
ECOSYSTEMS • BIOTIC – living • ABIOTIC – (A)non-living • Examples: • Abiotic factors that influence tolerance (worksheet)
ECOLOGICAL NICHE • An ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors . The way of life of a species. • The optimum range refers to the abiotic factors at which the organisms functions best. • Physiological stress refers to outside the preferred niche/optimum range. • Looking at niches (worksheet)
PLANTS & TROPISMS Read 219-228
TROPISMS • Tropism is the directional growth response of a plant to an environmental stimulus. • Positive tropism – growing toward a stimulus • Negative tropism – growing away from a stimulus • Complete the table:
TROPISMS • Tropisms (worksheet) • Leaves can tell a story (worksheet)
Know the definitions of these: • Epicormic bud • Lignotubers • Phytohormones • Gibberellins • Cytokinins • Abscisic acid • Ethylene • Auxins • Life of Plants (video) • Phytochromes • Photoperiodism • Dormancy • Taxis • Nastic • Nutation
ADAPTATIONS • Adaptations an organism has enables it to compete successfully to obtain its requirements, often in changing conditions. • These can be: • Structural • Physiological • Behavioural • Reproductive • Adaptations (worksheet)
PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS Read 233-267
MAINTAINING BALANCE • Organisms (that are subject to extreme conditions) have particular strategies and mechanisms that ensure relatively stable internal conditions – conditions that are necessary for biochemical process in cells to be maintained – despite what is happening in the external and internal environments. • Internal environment = the fluid surrounding living cells within a multi-cellular organism. • HOMEOSTASIS is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment, within narrow limits
EXAMPLES: • Blood sugar (Glucose concentration in the blood) • approximately 0.1% • Blood pH • approximately 7.4 • Blood pressure • approximately 120 / 80 • Body temperature • approximately 37°C (98.6°F)
Homeostasis involves most/all organs and systems of the body but especially • Nervous system • Hormone (endocrine) systems. • Factors that can interfere with homeostasis include: • Extremes in the external environment • Disease • Trauma • Inherited disorders • High levels of toxic substances
FEEDBACK MECHANISMS: Minor fluctuations occur, but signals about these disturbances are fed to a control centre which interprets what is going on. • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: Results in returning the changed internal conditions back to its optimal level. • Stimulus - Response Model: RECEPTOR Stimulus (input) Cancels or counteracts the original stimulus COORDINATION CENTER Response (output) EFFECTOR
NERVOUS SYSTEM & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM PAMPHLET
TEMPERATURE REGULATION • Ectothermic: organisms whose body temperature is governed by an _________ heat source. • Endothermic: organisms whose body heat is generated from _________ metabolic sources.
Poikilothermic: Refers to an organism having a body temperature that can vary greatly with changes in the external environment. • Homeothermic: Refers to an organism that is able to maintain an internal body temperature within narrow limits. • Organisms gain heat from their environment but they also lose heat to the environment. There are several mechanisms involved in the gain or loss of heat.
Animals have structural, physiological and behavioural adaptations, which equip them with heat gain and loss.
PART TWONERVES & HORMONES TOGETHER... • OSMOREGULATION • PROVIDE A DEFINITION • PROVIDE 4 DIFFERENT EXAMPLES
BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS Read 271-290
The scientific study of the behaviour of animals is called ethology. • The behaviour of an animal describes what it does, how it acts or reacts to a particular situation. • Question: • HOW does an animal know how to behave, act or react in a particular situation?
INNATE BEHAVIOUR • Or instinct, can be thought of as internal “programming” which all animals have depending on the type of animal they are. • This type of behaviour does not have to be learnt because it is inborn (genetically controlled). • Include: • Rhythmic • Group Organisation • Communication • Reproductive • Territorial Behaviour • Aggressive Behaviour
Rhythmic • Repeating behaviours at regular intervals
Group Organisation • Forming groups within animal species increases their chance of survival.
Communication • Will be through one of three kinds: acoustic, chemical or visual.
Reproductive, Territorial & Aggressive • Reproductive: • Enables individuals to locate a member of their own species, mate, reproduce and care for their young. • Courtship rituals and mating calls increase chances of finding a mate. Can included visual communication (eg. brightly coloured plumage in birds) • Grooming establishes bonds. Helps with hygiene, and the parasites offer a good source of protein when eaten. • Territorial: • Marking and defending their home range allows animal to protect its resources including food, shelter and potential mates. • Aggressive: • Often displayed to establish hierarchy within a group.
LEARNED BEHAVIOUR • Learning begins as soon as the animal is exposed to the outside world. • Animals change their behaviour as a result of experiences that require them to do so. • As the animal grows, it constantly adapts and adjusts it’s behaviour to respond to it’s environment.
REPRODUCTIVE ADAPTATIONS Read 291-297
Write definitions and notes on the following reproductive adaptations: • Courtship: • Parenting behaviour: • Development and life cycles: • Insects • Monotremes • Marsupials • Placentals