environments n.
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  1. Environments By: Jawad Bitar, Maryam AlMuhannadi, Mikail Cheema and Safiya Ibrahim.

  2. Geography of Phoenicia On the western end of the fertile crescent, along the mediterranean sea there is a land known as Phoenicia

  3. Three chief cities The three chief cities are Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and these cities still exist even today. Trade In Phoenicia they trade... • Cedar trees-valuable trade items • silver work • ivory carvings • slaves

  4. Trade The Phoenicians would trade these items in Italy, Sicily and Spain. The Phoenicians also had different trade routes. But these trade routes were blocked by mountains and hostile neighbors.

  5. Achievements The Phoenicians most important achievement was the alphabet. The alphabet made writing much easier and had a major impact on the ancient world and our world today.

  6. Facts about Phoenicians The phoenicians were expert sailors and they built the worlds finest harbour in Tyre.

  7. Where is Mesopotamia? Mesopotamia is between the Tigris and Euphrates River. The Mediterranean seais right next to Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf is close to Mesopotamia. Egypt is next to Mesopotamia as well. Mesopotamia now is Iran and also Turkey.

  8. What was farming like in Mesopotamia? Farming in Mesopotamia is very hard. There is not much water. Farming in Mesopotamia is depended on rain. If there is too much rain then the crops will flood. Thats why Mesopotamia needs to develop their water system.

  9. What was the use of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers? They used the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for farming. They made irrigation from the rivers in Mesopotamia. That was the use of the 2 rivers.

  10. What did irrigation do to Mesopotamia? Irrigation solved lots of problems for Mesopotamia. To irrigate the land they needed to dig a large storage basin to catch the rainwater from the north and then they built canals which connected with the basin which then went to lots of ditches. So then the farmers used the ditches to do farming. The farmers made river blanks to stop floods. Lots of water floods happened from irrigation and that is good for farming.

  11. Safavid Empire The Safavids were Persian. Safavids then converted to the muslim religion the Shia. The Shia thought that Muhammad (PeaceBeUponHim) descendants could become the Khalifa (caliph). The Safavid Empire started in 1501. A strong leader called Esma'il conquered Persia. He took the ancient Persian title of calling him the Shah or known today as king.

  12. Facts About Safavid Empire • Esma'il tried to gain Muslim lands and convert Sunni to Shiism. • Esma'il fought Uzbek people, he lost the battle tremendously by the Ottomans in 1514. • 1n 1588 Abbas became king or back then called the Shah. Esma'il Safavid Ruler

  13. The Mughal Empire The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur, who was a ruler of a kingdom near Persia (modern day Iran). Babur a Turk, was related to the great Mongol conqueror, Chengiz Khan and the Turkish invader Timur. The increasing power of the Uzbeks of Central Asia, was a cause for Babur to want to leave his country.

  14. Mughal Empire Leaders The first leader and ruler of the Mughal Empire was Zahir Un-Din Muhammad Babur. Babur invaded India in 1517. Babur was a Muslim Turk from Asia. In 1526, Babur seized the Sultanates, and founded the Mughal Empire, which developed into one of the strongest empire to ever exist in India. Babur is noted, and remembered as a wise and kind leader, who was also well educated. In 1556 to 1605 Babur's grandson Akbar at the age of thirteen took control of the empire. One of Akbar's greatest political achievements was bringing Hindus into the empire, and reestablishing the empire's unfair tax system.

  15. Mughal Empire Leaders The last ruler of the Mughal Empire was the son of Shah Jahan, (Aurangzeb,) who ruled from 1658 to 1707. Aurangzeb died in 1707.

  16. Akbar ☞ Zahir Un-Din Muhammad Babur. Aurangzeb ☝ ☞

  17. Ottoman Empire What was the Ottoman Empire? The Ottoman Empire existed from about 1300 to 1922. It started off in the region of modern Turkey, and crossed three continents when it was at its largest. It spanned from Hungary in the north to Aden in the south, and from AlGeria to Iran in the East. The Ottomans power also extended into southern Russia. The Ottoman Empire got its name from its founder Osman.

  18. Ottoman Empire Main Events: 1.Osman I < the ruler at the time > gains power 2. Turks spread in Anatolia. Turks invade and conquer parts of Balkan territory 3. Mehmed ll, leads a victorious siege of Constantinople (Which is now Istanbul). 4. In the later years, Turks advance into central Europe, Palestine, Egypt, Crimea, Caucasus and North Africa

  19. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Expansion : Historians believe the tribal traditions of the local warriors and the influence of Islam, were the main characteristics of the Empire. Constant warfare and good relationships brought the Ottomans success. In the 1300 the expansion started with Bursa which became their capital. The Expansion continued under the command of Sultan Mehmed II. The conquest continued under Sultan Selim I, then his son Suleiman - who was generally considered the greatest of all Ottoman Rulers.

  20. Map of The Ottoman Empire

  21. Sultan Beyazid Suleiman The Magnificent ← ← Mehmed II ←

  22. Selim I ← Osman ←

  23. The End.