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The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team

The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team

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The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team

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  1. The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team

  2. An Outcome Approach to PM • An objective measure that should not be open to misinterpretation • Indicates clearly all the significant factors that will determine success • Contingency and ‘what if’ factors should be considered at the outset • There should be no surprises about what is being measured

  3. Project Management in Organisations • Systems are created within the business context of an organisation • Projects are implemented so that business plans can be translated into systems to meet business goals • Project management is used in many industries • Project management is becoming established

  4. Modern Project Management • Everyone practices project management • Project management is more than project planning • The emergence of management by projects and modern project management (the new strategy)

  5. Project Manager’s Roles • Facilitator • Communicator

  6. Facilitator • Manager-As-Supervisor Versus Manager-As Facilitator • Systems Approach Versus Analytical Approach • sub optimisation • Must ensure project team members have appropriate knowledge and resources • Micromanagement

  7. The Project Manager’s Three Overriding Responsibilities to the Project • Acquisition of Resources • Fighting Fires and Obstacles • Leadership and Making Trade-Offs

  8. Negotiation, Conflict Resolution, and Persuasion • Necessary to meet three overriding responsibilities

  9. Selection of a Project Manager Key Criteria • Credibility • Sensitivity • Leadership, Style, Ethics

  10. Communicator Senior management Project team Client PM Outside interested parties Communication Paths Between a Project’s Parties-At-Interest

  11. Influencing the Organisation • Project manager needs to “get things done” • Needs an understanding of formal and informal structures • Must operate within cultural norms • Must understand the broader context

  12. Making Good Decision • Recognise the need for a decision • List the options • Forecast the outcome of adopting each of the options • Choose the best option • Implement the chosen option

  13. Project Stakeholders • People who are actively involved or whose interests may be affected • Necessary to identify project stakeholders and determine their needs and expectations • Manage and influence their expectations • Identify key stakeholders

  14. Project Stakeholders • Project Sponsor • Project Manager • Project Team • Project Users • Quality Manager • Risk Manager

  15. Virtual Project Manager • Geographically dispersed Projects • Communication Via • Email • Web • Telephone • Video Conferencing • “Never let the boss be surprised!”

  16. Virtual Project Structure

  17. Dedicated or Pure Project Team

  18. The Pure Project Organisation • Advantages • Effective and efficient for large projects • Resources available as needed • Broad range of specialists • Disadvantages • Expensive for small projects • Specialists may have limited technological depth • May require high levels of duplication for certain specialities

  19. Functional Project Organisation

  20. Functional Project Organisation • Advantages • Technological depth • Disadvantages • Lines of communication outside functional department slow • Technological breadth • Project rarely given high priority

  21. Matrix Project Organisation

  22. Matrix Project Organisation • Advantages • Flexibility in way it can interface with parent organisation • Strong focus on the project itself • Contact with functional groups minimizes “projectitis” • Ability to manage fundamental trade-offs across several projects • Disadvantages • Violation of the Unity of Command principle • Complexity of managing full set of projects • conflict

  23. Matrix Team Problems • Weak (Functional) Matrix • PM has no direct reports • Ability to communicate directly with team members important • Matrix Projects • Important to maintain good morale • Project Office

  24. Characteristics of Effective Project Team members • Technically Competent • Politically Sensitive • Problem Orientation • Goal Orientation • High Self-Esteem

  25. Mixed Project Organisation President Project 1 Finance Engineering Project 2 Manufacturing

  26. Project Organisation Structure

  27. Project Management Structures • Challenges to organise projects • The uniqueness and short-term duration of projects relative to the ongoing longer-term organisational goals • The multi-disciplinary and cross-functional nature of projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas • Choosing an appropriate project management structure • The best system balances the needs of the project with the needs of the organisation

  28. Organisational Structures and Cultures • Unique cultures and shared values • Organisational culture has influence upon a project • Organisational structures often constrain projects

  29. Key Dimensions Defining an Organisations Culture

  30. Cultural Dimensions of an Organisation Supportive of Project Management

  31. 10 ways to screw up a project 1. Don’t bother prioritising your organisation’s overall project load 2. Encourage sponsors and key stakeholders to take a passive role on the project team 3. Set up on going committees focusing on management process 4. Interrupt team member relentlessly Create a culture in which project managers are expected to ‘roll over’ and take it when substantive new deliverables are added (Michael Greer)

  32. 10 ways to screw up a project 6. Half way through the project, add a whole bunch of previously unnamed stakeholders 7. Never force sponsors to stand behind their approvals with a formal sign-off 8. Make sure project managers have lots of responsibilities and deadlines, but no authority 9. Describe project deliverables in the vaguest possible terms 10. Get projects up and running as quickly as possible