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Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport

Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport

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Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport

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  1. Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport Chapter 43

  2. In order to survive, plants have to… The best ways to appreciate plants is to consider how they overcome the challenges encountered by life on Earth • Obtain energy • Obtain water and other nutrients • Distribute water and nutrients through the body • Exchange gases • Support the body • Grow and develop • Reproduce • Evolution has produced a variety of different types of plants

  3. Plant body Organization • Two major parts • The root system of a plant • The shoot system

  4. Root Systems • Branched portions of the plant body • Embedded in the soil • Six functions - • Anchor the plant • Absorb water and minerals from soil • Store surplus food, carbohydrates manufactured in the shoot • Transport water, minerals, sugars, hormones to and from shoot • Produce hormones • Interact with soil fungi and bacteria that help provide nutrients to the plant

  5. The Shoot The shoot system is buds, leaves, flowers, fruits - all on parts of stems • Buds give rise to leaves or flowers • Leaves - sites of photosynthesis • Flowers - reproductive organs, producing male and female gametes, then help them to reach one another • Flowers produce seeds enclosed within fruits (protect and aid in dispersal) Stems - branched, elevate the leaves, flowers, fruit • Elevating the fruit helps disperse the seeds • Some parts are specialized to transport water, minerals, food molecules, others produce hormones

  6. Two groups of flowering plants Monocots - lilies, daffodils, tulips, palm trees, grasses— lawn grasses, and wheat, rice, corn, oats, bamboo Dicots- “broad-leafed” plants, including deciduous trees, bushes, vegetables, and flowers in fields and gardens There are differences between monocots and dicots, but the characteristic that gives these groups their name is the number of cotyledons • The part of a plant embryo that absorbs and stores food reserves in the seed, then transfers the food to the rest to the embryo when the seed sprouts • Monocots have a single cotyledon • Dicots have two cotyledons

  7. The Structures and Functions of a Flowering Plant functions structures growth and development of plant structures leaf primordia apical meristem terminal bud lateral bud reproduction node flower body support; transport of water and nutrients stem shoot system fruit blade reproduction leaf petiole energy acquisition by photosynthesis; gas exchange branch root root system branch roots Acquisition of water and minerals root hairs root cap

  8. Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots Flowers Leaves Stems Roots Seeds embryo Monocots cotyledon Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem Flower parts are in threes or multiples of three Monocots have a fibrous root system The seed has one cotyledon (seed leaf) Leaves have smooth edges, often narrow, with parallel veins embryo Dicots cotyledons Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the stem The seed has two cotyledons (seed leaves) Flower parts are in fours or fives or multiples of four or five Dicots have a taproot system Leaves are palmate (handlike) or oval with netlike veins

  9. Plant Development Dramatically different from animals One difference - timing and distribution of growth In animals, the proportions of a newborn differs from an adult, parts of a newborn’s body grow until they reach adult size and structure, then growth stops Flowering plants grow throughout their lives, never reaching a stable adult body form Most plants grow longer or taller only at the tips of their branches and roots A swing tied to a tree branch or initials carved in tree bark do not move farther up from the ground as the tree grows

  10. Plants are composed of two types of cells • During plant growth, meristem cells give rise to differentiated cells • Meristem cells, like animal stem cells, are unspecialized and capable of mitotic cell division • Some daughter cells lose the ability to divide and become differentiated cells, with specialized structures and functions • Continued division of meristem cells keep the plant growing throughout its life • Differentiated daughter cells form the non-growing parts of the plant, as leaves

  11. Where Growth Occurs • Plants grow as a result of cell division and differentiation of meristem cells found in two general locations – • Apical meristems - located at the tips of roots and shoots • Growth produced by apical meristem cells is primary growth • Increase in the height or length of a shoot or root, development of specialized parts of the plant - leaves and buds • Lateral meristems (side meristems, cambium) - concentric cylinders of meristem cells

  12. Animation: Primary Growth

  13. Secondary Growth Division of lateral meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter cells produce further concentric cylinders of secondary growth, an increase in the diameter and strength of roots and shoots • Occurs in woody plants - deciduous trees, shrubs, conifers • Some woody plants become very tall and thick and may live hundreds to thousands of years Many plants do not undergo secondary growth • Plants that lack secondary growth are soft bodied, with flexible, fairly short stems • These herbaceous, typically short-lived plants include lettuce, beans, lilies, and grasses

  14. Tissues and Cell Types? As meristem cells differentiate, they produce a variety of cell types • One or more specialized types of cells work together to perform a specific function, as conducting water and minerals = tissue • Functional groups of more than one tissue = tissue systems • Dermal tissue system covers the outer surface of the plant • Ground tissue system makes up the body of young plants; its functions include photosynthesis, storage, and support • Vascular tissue system transports fluids throughout the plant body

  15. Tissues and Cell Types

  16. Dermal Tissues • Dermal tissue system covers the plant body • Two types of dermal tissues: • epidermal tissue • periderm

  17. Epidermal Tissues Epidermal tissue forms the epidermis - outermost cell layer covering the leaves, stems, and roots of all young plants, also covers flowers, seeds, and fruit • In herbaceous plants, it forms the outer covering of the entire plant body throughout its life • Above ground - generally composed of tightly packed, thin-walled cells, covered with waterproof, waxy cuticle secreted by the epidermal cells • The cuticle reduces the evaporation of water from the plant and helps protect it from the invasion of disease microorganisms • Adjustable pores regulate the movement of water vapor, O2, and CO2 across the epidermis of leaves and young stems • In contrast, the epidermal cells of roots are not covered with cuticle that would prevent them from absorbing water and minerals

  18. Periderm Replaces epidermal tissue on the roots and stems of woody plants as they age Composed of multiple layers of cork cells on the outside of the root or stem and a layer of lateral meristem tissue - cork cambium - that generates the cells • Cork cells produce thick, waterproof cell walls as they grow, then die as they reach maturity • Because of multiple layers of waterproof cork cells on their surface, root segments that are covered with periderm help anchor the plant in the soil, but can not absorb water and minerals

  19. Ground Tissue Compromises most of the young plant body • All of the tissue of the plant body except dermal and vascular tissues • Three types of ground tissues are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma

  20. Parenchyma Parenchyma - most abundant - makes up most of young plant body • The cells - called parenchyma cells - have thin cell walls and are alive at maturity • They carry out the plant’s metabolic activities, photosynthesis , secretion of hormones, food storage • Potatoes, seeds, fruits, storage roots are packed with parenchyma cells that store sugars and starches • Help to support the bodies of many plants, especially herbaceous plants • Some cells can divide • In addition to making up much of the ground tissue system, parenchyma cells are found in periderm and vascular tissues

  21. Parenchyma stored starch thin cell wall (a) Parenchyma cells in a white potato

  22. Collenchyma Cells that are elongated, with thickened but flexible cell walls • Alive at maturity, generally cannot divide • Collenchyma tissue provides support for entire body of young and non-woody plants, the leaf stalks, or petioles, of all plants • Celery stalks are thick petioles, are supported by “strings” composed of collenchyma cells

  23. Collenenchyma thick cell wall (b) Collenchyma cells in a celery stalk

  24. Sclerenchyma Composed of cells with thick, hardened cell walls • Sclerenchyma cells support and strengthen the plant body; they die after they differentiate • Their thick cell walls then remain as a source of support • Sclerenchyma cells form nut shells and the outer covering of peach pits • Scattered throughout the parenchyma cells in a pear, sclerenchyma cells give pears their gritty texture • Sclerenchyma cells support vascular tissues and form an important component of wood

  25. Sclerenenchyma thick cell wall (c) Sclerenchyma cells in a pear

  26. The Vascular Tissue System • Transports water and nutrients • Conducts water and dissolved substances throughout the body • Consists of two conducting tissues: xylem and phloem

  27. Xylem Transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant, only in one direction. • In angiosperms, xylem contains supporting sclerenchyma fibers and two specialized conducting cell types: tracheids and vessel elements • Both tracheids and vessel elements develop thick cell walls, then die as their final step of differentiation, leaving hollow tubes of nonliving cells wall

  28. Xylem Tissues • Tracheids- thin, elongated cells stacked atop one another • Tapered, overlapping cells resemble the tips of hypodermic needles • The ends and sides of tracheids contain pits - porous dimples in the walls that separate adjacent cells • Because the cell wall in a pit is both thin and porous, water and minerals pass freely from one tracheid to another an adjacent vessel element • Vessel elements - larger in diameter than tracheids, form pipelines called vessels • Vessel elements are stacked end to end • Their adjoining end walls may be connected by fairly large holes or the walls may disintegrate, leaving an open tube

  29. Animation: Xylem Adaptations

  30. Xylem tracheids pits end wall vessel element

  31. Phloem Transports sugars and other organic molecules throughout the plant body • Transports sugars, amino acids, and hormones—from structures that synthesize them to structures that need them • Transports fluids up or down the plant, depending on the metabolic state of the parts of the plant at any given time • Two cell types: sieve-tube elements and companion cells • Sieve-tube elements - joined end to end to form pipes • As sieve-tube elements mature, they lose their nuclei and other organelles, only a thin layer of cytoplasm lining the plasma membrane • The junction between two sieve-tube elements is a sieve plate • Membrane-lined pores connect the insides of two sieve-tube elements, allowing fluid to move from one cell to the next

  32. Sieve-tube Cells • Sieve-tube function requires an intact plasma membrane • How, then, can sieve-tube elements maintain and repair their plasma membranes when they lack nuclei and most other organelles? • Life support of sieve-tube elements is provided by smaller, adjacent companion cells, which are connected to sieve-tube elements by pores called plasmodesmata • Companion cells help maintain the integrity of the sieve-tube elements by providing them with proteins and high-energy compounds such as ATP • Like xylem, phloem also contains supporting sclerenchyma fibers

  33. Phloem companion cell sieve plate companion cell sieve-tube element

  34. Leaves Major photosynthetic structures of most plants • Their green color arises from chlorophyll molecules • Shape and structure of leaves has evolved in response to environmental challenges that plants face in obtaining the essentials for photosynthesis: sunlight, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water Water is absorbed from the soil by the roots and transported to leaves by the xylem • Assuming adequate water supply, maximum photosynthesis would occur in a porous leaf (allows CO2 to diffuse easily from air to the leaf) with a large surface area

  35. Leaves are a compromise… Land plants cannot always get enough water from soil • On a hot, sunny day - large, porous leaf loses more water through evaporation than the plant could replace • The leaves of flowering plants are an compromise between conflicting demands • They have a large, waterproof surfaces with adjustable pores that can open and close to admit CO2 or restrict water evaporation

  36. Angiosperm Leaves A broad, flat portion - the blade is connected to the stem by a stalk, or petiole • The petiole positions the blade • Inside, vascular tissues provide a conducting system between the leaf and the rest of the plant The epidermis regulates movement of gases in and out • Leaf epidermis is a layer of nonphotosynthetic, transparent cells that secrete a waxy cuticle on the outer surfaces • The cuticle is waterproof and reduces evaporation

  37. Stomata (stoma) Adjustable pores in the cuticle and epidermis, they regulate the diffusion of CO2, O2, water vapor in and out • Two sausage-shaped guard cells that enclose and adjust the size of the opening • Unlike the other epidermal cells, guard cells contain chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis

  38. Functions of Leaves • Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells • The transparent epidermal cells allow sunlight to reach the mesophyll (“middle of the leaf”), which consists of loosely packed cells containing chloroplasts • Mesophyll cells carry out most of the photosynthesis of a leaf • Air spaces between mesophyll cells allow CO2 from the atmosphere to diffuse to each cell and O2 produced during photosynthesis to diffuse away • Many leaves possess two types of mesophyll cells—an upper layer of columnar palisade cells and a lower layer of irregularly shaped spongy cells

  39. Vascular Bundles • Veins transport water and nutrients throughout the leaf • Vascular bundles (veins) contain xylem and phloem • Conduct materials between leaf and the rest of the plant • Veins send thin branches to each photosynthetic cell • Xylem delivers water and minerals to the mesophyll cells of the leaf, and phloem carries away the sugar they produce during photosynthesis

  40. A Typical Dicot Leaf petiole blade bundle-sheath cell cuticle upper epidermis palisade layer mesophyll spongy layer lower epidermis xylem phloem cuticle guard cell stoma chloroplasts vascular bundle

  41. Structures and Functions of Leaves Temperature, availability of water and light have exerted selection pressure on leaves • Dim light - the floor of a tropical rain forest - very large leaves, low light level and abundant water • Desert-dwelling cacti have spines , no surface area for evaporation • Plump leaves of succulents store water in the central vacuoles of their cells and are covered with a thick cuticle to reduces water evaporation • Some plants have surprising structures and functions, including storing nutrients, capturing prey, or climbing • Onions, Venus Flytraps, Pea plant tendrils

  42. Specialized Leaves

  43. Stems Support and separate the leaves, lifting them to the sunlight and air • Stems transport water and dissolved minerals from the roots up to the leaves • They also transport sugars produced in the photosynthetic parts of the shoot to the roots and other parts of the shoot, such as buds, flowers, and fruits

  44. Adaptations of stems • Potato eyes • Strawberry runners • Grapes and ivies with grasping tendrils • thorns

  45. Cork

  46. Functions of Roots • Anchor plant • Absorb water and mineral • Store water and food • Dicots generally have taproots • Monocots have fibrous root systems

  47. Taproots and Fibrous Roots

  48. Structures of Roots? • 4 distinct regions • Root cap • Epidermis • Cortex • Vascular cylinder

  49. Primary Growth in Roots epidermis root hair cortex endodermis of cortex pericycle xylem phloem vascular cylinder apical meristem root cap

  50. Root Cap • Primary growth in a root • Protects apical meristem • Thick cell walls, lubricant • Continuously replaced