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Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750-1900-20% of test PowerPoint Presentation
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Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750-1900-20% of test

Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750-1900-20% of test

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Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750-1900-20% of test

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  1. Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750-1900-20% of test 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism 5:2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform 5.4: Global Migration

  2. Key Concept 5.1:Industrialization and Global Capitalism • Industrialization fundamentally changed the production and consumption of goods around the world • A variety of factors led to the I.R. • Europe’s location and geographical distribution of coal, iron, timber • Urbanization • Agricultural productivity • Legal protection of private property • Access to foreign resources • Accumulation of capital

  3. Key Concept 5.1:Industrialization and Global Capitalism • Machines • Steam engine • Internal combustion engine • Possible to exploit fossil fuels • Factory systems • Specialization of labor Second Industrial Revolution Steele, chemicals, electricity, precision electricity

  4. Key Concept 5.1:Industrialization and Global Capitalism Need for raw materials led to specialized mass production of single natural resources(cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, etc) Decline of agricultural activity in some places-Textile production in India New consumer markets-China Mining centers-copper in Mexico, gold and diamonds in Africa Development and expansion of financial institutions-stock markets, insurance, gold standard, corporations Classical liberalism-Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill Transportation and communication

  5. Key Concept 5.1:Industrialization and Global Capitalism • Social Classes • Middle class and industrial working class • Gender roles changed • Urbanization-unsanitary conditions and new types of communities • Global Capitalism • Alternative visions: Utopian socialism, Marxism, Anrarchism • Government promotion of industrialization-Meiji Japan, Tsarist Russia, China’s Self-Strengthening, Ottoman Empire • Reforms: state pensions and public health-Germany, suffrage rights-Britain, public education

  6. Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation States expanded overseas colonies and established new types of colonies Modern empire building impacted regional warfare and diplomacy Increase in European influence, USA, and Japan Land based empires in Eurasia were challenged by new empires New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture developed and facilitated growth of empires and formation of new national identities

  7. Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation Strengthening colonial control-British in India, Dutch in Indonesia Europeans used warfare and diplomacy to establish empires-Britain in W. Africa, Belgium in Congo European settler colonies-British in S. Africa, Australia, New Zealandand the French in Algeria Economic imperialism-British and French

  8. Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world Anti-imperialism resistance led to the contraction of Ottoman Empire USA and Russia expanded their land borders New states developed on the edge of existing empires-The Cherokee Nation, Zulu Kingdom, Hawaii Nationalism-Germany, Philippines, Liberia Social Darwinism justified imperialism

  9. Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform Intense period of revolution and rebellion, establishment of new nation states Enlightenment –Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau Revolutionary documents-Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, Jamaica Letter Individual Rights, Natural Rights, Social Contract New ideologies Anti-imperial Liberalism, Socialism, Communism Women’s suffrage, emergent feminism-Mary Wollstonecraft, Declaration of Sentiments

  10. 5.4: Global Migration Number of migrants increased significantly Change connected to transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy Some economic benefits Some people became economic commodities Produced dramatically different societies on both ends Challenging for governments-trying to foster national identities and regulate the flow of people (enclaves such as Indians in S. Africa) (Chinese Exclusion Acts) Global population rose because of changes in food production and improved medical conditions New transportation Increased urbanization-people relocated to cities

  11. Key Concept 5.4 : Global Migration End of slave trade but increased indentured labor and penal colonies Long Distance migration Regulation of borders (passports, citizenship as part of nation state)

  12. Demographic and Environmental Changes • Migration – Immigration • Why? • Where?

  13. 19th c. Migration to Latin America • Asian immigration to Latin Americans • Filipinos in 16th century • Indentured labor: Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese • Brazil now has 2.3 million Asian Latin Americans • 3% of population today in Peru

  14. Changing Relationships between Latin America and the World Political independence (Simon Bolivar and Gran Colombia) Rebellions of the Last Incas Economic dependency (sugar, coffee, bananas, guano…) Emerging Relationship with the United States (neo-imperialism)

  15. Simon Bolivar--The Jamaica Letter “The role of the inhabitants of the American hemisphere has for centuries been purely passive. Politically they were nonexistent. We are still in a position lower than slavery, and therefore it is more difficult for us to rise to the enjoyment of freedom…States are slaves because of either the nature or the misuse of their constitutions; a people is therefore enslaved when the government, by its nature or its vices, infringes on and usurps the rights of the citizen or subject.”

  16. Simon Bolivar--The Jamaica Letter • “More than anyone, I desire to see America fashioned into the greatest nation in the world, greatest not so much by virtue of her area and wealth as by her freedom and glory. Although I seek perfection for the government of my country, I cannot persuade myself that the New World can, at the moment, be organized as a great republic. …. The American states need the care of paternal governments to heal the sores and wounds of despotism and war.” • “As soon as we are strong and under the guidance of a liberal nation which will lend us her protection, we will achieve accord in cultivating the virtues and talents that lead to glory. Then will we march majestically toward that great prosperity for which South America is destined.”

  17. New Dependencies • Sugar • Guano • Bananas • Coffee

  18. Banana Republics

  19. Rise of Western Dominance • Patterns of Expansion • Imperialism and Colonialism • African continent, much of Asia, and Oceania • Ethiopia and Siam • Hawaii and New Zealand

  20. Rise of Western Dominance • Cultural and Political Reactions to western dominance (reform, resistance, rebellion, racism, nationalism) • Japan– Commodore Perry and Meiji Restoration • Russia– Reforms and Rebellions • Siam and Ethiopia-- defensive modernization • China--Boxer Rebellion • Islamic and Chinese responses compared • Impact of Changing European Ideologies on Colonial Administrations

  21. Rise of Western Dominance Scramble for Africa

  22. Talking Points: The Magnificent African Cake • Berlin Conference • Boer War: Dutch and the British • Liberia and Ethiopia • Resistance efforts • Cecil Rhodes • Lobengula and the Rudd Concession • King Leopold’s Ghost • French vs. British rule • Resource exploitation: rubber, diamonds…

  23. Comparing Intervention • Forms of intervention in 19th century Latin America and Africa • Case studies: US involvement in Latin America compared to Belgians in Congo or British in Nigeria? British actions in South Africa (Boer War) compared to British in Falklands or French in Algeria? Italian intervention in Ethiopia compared to French in Haiti Others?

  24. Race and “Civilization” • Racism • Social Darwinism • Herbert Spencer

  25. Revolutions Revolutions (Haiti, Americas, Europe) and colonial revolts Enlightenment ideology as well as the use of spirituality in some rebellions Liberal political principles embraced suffrage, abolition, and gender equality

  26. Political Revolutions and Independence Movements • Revolutions • Why Revolution now? • Where? • United States (1776) • France (1789) • Haiti (1803) • Mexico (1910) • China (1911)

  27. Political Revolutions and Independence Movements Latin American Independence Movements Why? Simon Bolivar

  28. Political Revolutions and Independence Movements Haitian Revolution Toussaint L’Ouverture

  29. Political Revolutions and Independence Movements Mexican Revolution

  30. Liberator-Hero Analysis: Eulogies and Portraits

  31. New Political Ideas Rise of Nationalism Growth of Nation-states Compare to Germany, Italy, Japan, India, Ethiopia…

  32. Resistance in Africa • Samoure Toure • Menelik II

  33. Abolition: End of the Slave trade • Why? • William Wilberforce       “So enormous, so dreadful, so irremediable did the Trade's wickedness appear that my own mind was completely made up for Abolition. Let the consequences be what they would, I from this time determined that I would never rest until I had effected its abolition.” “Is it not the great end of religion, and, in particular, the glory of Christianity, to extinguish the malignant passions; to curb the violence, to control the appetites, and to smooth the asperities of man; to make us compassionate and kind, and forgiving one to another; to make us good husbands, good fathers, good friends; and to render us active and useful in the discharge of the relative social and civil duties?” Equianno…

  34. Abolition of slave trade- Britain 1807

  35. Wahhabism • 18th century conservative Islam movement • Modern Legacy within Arab nationalism

  36. Mohammad Ali and Egypt “Such being my supreme pleasure on all the points above specified, thou, thy children, and thy descendants, grateful for this exalted sovereign favour, ye shall always be diligent in scrupulously executing the conditions laid down, ye shall take need not to infringe them, ye shall be careful to ensure the repose and the tranquility of the Egyptians by protecting them from all injury and from all oppressions, ye shall report to this place, and ye shall apply for orders on all matters of importance which concern those countries, it being for these purposes that the present Imperial FIRMAN, which is decorated with my sovereign signature, has been written, and is sent to you. “ http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=15

  37. Suffrage Movements Small presence of movement in Latin American countries though in Africa women were more involved in nationalist struggles (later) National women's suffrage was granted in 1929 in Ecuador, 1932 in Brazil, 1939 in El Salvador, 1942 in the Dominican Republic, 1945 in Guatemala, and 1946 in Argentina. In African countries, men and women have generally received the vote at the same time, as in Liberia (1947), Uganda (1958), and Nigeria (1960).

  38. Impact of Industrialization in Latin America • Raw materials • Beef Extract (BWH series…) • Trade • Case studies– student jigsaw Argentina Peru Brazil (The Seamstress) Mexico Nicaragua Cuba

  39. Impact of Industrialization in Africa • Raw materials • Colonialism • Case Studies– student jigsaw Congo (Choices unit) Rhodesia/ South Africa Kenya Morocco The Gambia/ Senegal (Donald Wright’s book)

  40. Gender Roles and conditions of upper/ middle versus working/ peasant class women in western Europe compared to women in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa in the 19th century

  41. Changes in Global Commerce, Communication and Technology • Modes of Transportation/ communication • Impact of railroad, steam, telegraph • Suez Canal, Panama Canal

  42. Panama Canal

  43. Panama Canal

  44. Suez Canal Suez canal opened in 1869

  45. Conclusions What are the global processes that are at play? Which have intensified? Diminished? Predict how the events of the 19th century are a natural culmination of earlier developments. Speculate what historical events in the 19th century would have most surprised historians of earlier eras. What region (s) are in a position to be “players” in the next period?