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Unit 5 1750-1900

Unit 5 1750-1900

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Unit 5 1750-1900

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  1. Unit 51750-1900 Industrialization and Globalization

  2. Unit 5 Themes • 1. Nationalism, Revolution and Reform • 2. The Industrial Revolution • 3. Imperialism and Nation-State Building • 4. Global Migration

  3. The French Revolution http://globerove.com/france/french-revolution-timeline-infographic/21869#lightbox/0/ Timeline

  4. Causes of the French Revolution

  5. Inept Ruler? King Louis XVI

  6. French Society • First Estate: Catholic clergy • .5% pop. • Did not pay taxes • Second Estate: nobility • 1.5% pop. • Exempt from many taxes • Third Estate: Rest of Population • Bourgeoisie – wealthy middle class • Sans-culottes – working class • Provided bulk of French tax revenue

  7. X X X X X XXX X XXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Political inequalities for Middle Class First EstateSecond EstateThird Estate 1 Vote 1 Vote X= Representative 1 Vote

  8. Financial Crisis • During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts • American Revolution • Lavish lifestyle of the monarchy • Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788 • Bread prices went up 50% in 1789 • Need for tax reform • Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on the aristocracy • Aristocracy resisted reforms • Forced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614

  9. Calling of the Estates-General May 5, 1789

  10. The National Assembly andTennis Court Oath June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

  11. Why Revolution? • Revolutionaries demanded end to the Ancien Regime “Old Order” • Absolutism • Noble & Church feudal privileges • Slogan of Revolution • “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” (brotherhood)

  12. Phase IModerate/liberalGoal- create constitutional monarchy

  13. Marquis de LafayetteThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen - 1789 June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

  14. Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen a. based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of Independence

  15. Storming of the Bastille • - Members of the 3rd Estate took it over to gain gunpowder & free political prisoners • Importance = Symbolized the start of the revolution • “Bastille Day” = National holiday; July 14

  16. Storming of the Bastille

  17. Great Fear - France enters “Great Fear” – general revolts against Old Feudal Regime; clergy, nobility

  18. March on Versailles Oct. 5, 1789

  19. Women’s March on Versailles Storming of Versailles October 1, 1789 -Results - Royal family forced to come to Paris - Louis forced to sign new constitution - France now a constitutional monarchy

  20. Critical Intro: • Why do you think all of the events leading up to the “Reign of Terror” were viewed as “moderate” considering some of the violent actions during those events?

  21. Phase II(1792-1794)Radical Goal- a republic; eliminate monarchists and counterrevolutionaries

  22. European Nations Attack France • Nations (Great Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia) take advantage of instability – Attack France Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

  23. Critical Intro. • Why were all events up to the Reign of Terror considered “Moderate”? Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

  24. Radicals Take Control Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

  25. Execution of Louis XVI January 21, 1793

  26. Monarchy dead; Republic is born • Jacobin (radical revolutionaries) Reforms • Universal adult male suffrage • Universal military duty • Abolished slavery • Fuels Haitian Revolution • Increased rights of women • Could not participate in politics • Attacked Catholicism • Spirit of nationalism

  27. “Reign of Terror” 1793 - 1794

  28. Reign of Terror “The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.” • Led by Maximilien Robespierre • Find & eliminate enemies of the state • Monarchists • counterrevolutionaries • As many as 40,000 killed by guillotine video

  29. British View of Reign of Terror

  30. End of the Terror French Revolution part 3 French Revolution part 4 Robespierre is killed French Revolution part 5 July 28, 1794

  31. Phase III(1794-1815)Conservative/reactionary Goal- To end “terror” and establish Directory

  32. Directory and Rise of Napoleon 1799 - 1815

  33. Rise of Napoleon • Directory = Ineffective governing body following “Terror” • Failed to solve economic problems of France • Napoleon staged a coup d'état in 1799 • Becomes emperor in 1804

  34. Goals of Napoleon • increase French nationalism • control of Europe • improve education a. set up technical schools, universities and secondary schools • required all citizens to pay taxes • Establish Central Bank • improve the legal system a. simplified the French law code into the Napoleonic Code

  35. Napoleonic Code, 1804 • Purpose = reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the French Rev. • Create 1 law code for France • Influenced European legal codes

  36. Building His Empire • after defeating Austria and Italy, he convinced Russia to drop out of the war • a. Also invaded Spain & Portugal • b. Britain was left as the only country opposing Napoleon • Continental System– ordered all European nations to stop trade withBritain • Goal = isolate Britain & promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe

  37. The Continental System

  38. Napoleon’s Empire

  39. Napoleon’s Empire

  40. Downfall of Napoleon • 1812 – Napoleon invaded Russia with a 600,000 men • the Russians executed a “scorched-earth” policy = no food or shelter for French troops • Napoleon had to withdraw because of theharsh Russian winter • the Russians attacked them the whole way back • 500,000 died • French severely weakened = Spain, Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria and Italy attacked France • March 14, 1814 – Napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne and was exiled to Elba

  41. Napoleon’s Failed Invasion of Russia

  42. Napoleon’s Empire Left: Napoleon’s Empire by 1812 Above: Napoleon’s Retreat from Russia

  43. Napoleon on Elba This should NOT be a prison

  44. Final Defeat • Napoleon escapes Elba • Leads France for 100 days • Europeans invade France & defeat Napoleon for good at Waterloo. • Exiled to St. Helena

  45. Battle of Waterloo British and Prussians Defeat Napoleon for good

  46. Napoleon’s Downfall • Could not conquer British navy • Guerilla movements in Spain and Portugal • Failed invasion of Russia • Final defeat at Waterloo

  47. Napoleon Banished to St. Helena

  48. Legacy of Napoleon • Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination. • Napoleonic Code – great influence on modern European legal codes • Spread of nationalism in Europe • German and Italian unification • Greek independence

  49. Legacy of the French Revolution • Global Independence movements • Haitian Revolution • Latin American independence • Triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain • Egypt broke away from Ottoman Empire • Slave Trade and Slavery • England abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833 • Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888) • Abolition of serfdom • Except in Russia