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Unit 5 1750-1900

Unit 5 1750-1900

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Unit 5 1750-1900

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  1. Unit 51750-1900 Industrialization and Globalization

  2. Unit 5 Themes • 1. Nationalism, Revolution and Reform • 2. The Industrial Revolution • 3. Imperialism and Nation-State Building • 4. Global Migration

  3. The French Revolution

  4. Causes of the French Revolution

  5. The Enlightenment • Political & Legal Equality (Rousseau) • Personal Freedoms (Voltaire) • Social Contract (Hobbes) • Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke) • Global Influence of Enlightenment Values • American Revolution

  6. Inept Ruler? King Louis XVI

  7. Q. What can you infer from the pie graphs on why a revolution occurred in France?

  8. X X X X X XXX X XXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Political inequalities for Middle Class First EstateSecond EstateThird Estate 1 Vote 1 Vote X= Representative 1 Vote

  9. Financial Crisis • During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts • American Revolution? • Lavish lifestyle of the monarchy • Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788 • Bread prices went up 50% in 1789 • Need for tax reform • Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on the aristocracy • Aristocracy resisted reforms • Forced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614

  10. Estates General • First Estate: 100,000 Catholic clergy • Did not pay taxes • Second Estate: 400,000 nobles • Exempt from many taxes • Third Estate: Rest of Population • Sans-culottes – working class • Provided bulk of French tax revenue

  11. Discussion Questions What were the similarities between the long-term causes of the American and French Revolutions? Differences?

  12. Phase IModerate/liberalGoal- create constitutional monarchy

  13. Calling of the Estates-General May 5, 1789

  14. The National Assembly andTennis Court Oath June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

  15. Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen • Passed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789 • Not a Constitution but a statement of general principals • Defines individual and collective rights • Does not address women or slavery

  16. Marquis de LafayetteThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen - 1789 June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

  17. Storming of the Bastille - Members of the 3rd Estate took it over to gain gunpowder & free political prisoners - Importance = Symbolized the start of the revolution - France enters “Great Fear” – general revolts against Old Feudal Regime.

  18. Women’s March Storming of Versailles October 1, 1789

  19. March on Versailles Oct. 5, 1789

  20. Phase II(1792-1794)Radical Goal- a republic; eliminate monarchists and counterrevolutionaries

  21. Radicals Take Control Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

  22. Execution of Louis XVI January 21, 1793

  23. Radical Reforms of the Jacobins • Universal adult male suffrage • Abolished slavery • Fuels Haitian Revolution • Universal military conscription • Increased rights of women • Could not participate in politics • Attacked Catholicism • Spirit of nationalism

  24. “Reign of Terror” 1793 - 1794

  25. Reign of Terror “The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.” • Led by Maximilien Robespierre • According to records 16,000+ died under the guillotine • Historians estimate could be as high as 40,000

  26. British View of Reign of Terror

  27. End of the Terror Robespierre is killed July 28, 1794

  28. Phase III(1794-1815)Conservative/reactionary Goal- To end “terror” and establish Directory

  29. Directory and Rise of Napoleon 1799 - 1815

  30. Napoleon Bonaparte • Moderate government, the Directory, rules for five years following Reign of Terror • Failed to solve economic problems of France • Napoleon staged a coup d'état in 1799 • Becomes emperor in 1804

  31. Domestic Policies of Napoleon • Maintained some rights gainedduring the revolution • Freedom of religion • Napoleonic Code (Civil Code) • Schools and universities • Reversed other gains • Rights of women • Freedom of expression • Reformed economy • Revised tax code • Central bank

  32. Napoleon’s Empire

  33. Napoleon’s Failed Invasion of Russia

  34. Napoleon’s Empire Left: Napoleon’s Empire by 1812 Above: Napoleon’s Retreat from Russia

  35. Napoleon on Elba This should NOT be a prison

  36. Battle of Waterloo British and Prussians Defeat Napoleon for good

  37. Napoleon Banished to St. Helena

  38. Napoleon’s Downfall • Could not conquer British navy • Guerilla movements in Spain and Portugal • Failed invasion of Russia • Final defeat at Waterloo

  39. Legacy of Napoleon • Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination. • Napoleonic Code – great influence on modern European legal codes • Spread of nationalism in Europe • German and Italian unification • Greek independence

  40. Legacy of the French Revolution • Global Independence movements • Haitian Revolution • Latin American independence • Triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain • Egypt broke away from Ottoman Empire • Slave Trade and Slavery • England abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833 • Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888) • Abolition of serfdom • Except in Russia